Cottage Blooms

Cottage Blooms

Cottage blooms are part of the cottage feel…the escape from reality we all look forward too. When the city life is far away. we can relax and enjoy our gardens. Whether part of an organized garden with annuals and perennial plants bought from a local garden centre, or provided by Mother Nature, the beauty they give us is inspiring!

Cottage blooms show below are merely a small sampling of the variety found in the garden and the meadow around my cottage.  Norfolk County, Ontario has a wide variety of Carolinian wildflowers that brighten up the day.

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Buttercup wildflower

 

 

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cottage blooms

 

 

 

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Roadside garden with Yucca plant

Roadside garden with Yucca plant

Cottage blooms can also break up large expanses of otherwise boring spaces such as along roadsides where local clearance by-laws rule. Small planting of perennials such as this Yucca, combined with wildflower perennials such as the Purple Coneflower and annuals will provide a nice touch of colour while ensuring a garden that will not get too large and out of control.

 

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wild violet

This lovely yellow violet was found growing in mass between the Red Sycamore plants. Across my 1.8 acres there are many clumps of violets. Despite merely being 2 cm across, the flowers are dainty and delightful!

 

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Shasta Daisy from garden centre

 

 

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Whether planted or part of the randomness of nature, all blooms delight the eye and dazzle the senses. If you do not have a cottage, just take a drive through the countryside on warm ,sunny day and you won’t be disappointed.

Summer Blooms

Summer blooms need lots of tender loving care to ensure they are always producing new buds. Certainly as we are in mid July, by now most gardeners have worn out their green thumbs by planting and relocating countless perennials and annuals.Not to be forgotten are the countless seasonal flower sales that often drive gardeners in to a last minute frenzy as the temptation to have just one more summer bloom takes over.

Lily

 

 

Garden Sale points:

1. is there a spot in my garden for it

2. is the plant in good enough shape to survive the transplanting

3. is the price really a “sale”

4.  do I need it.

Certainly summer blooms are tempting, but unless a lovely perennial seems just what you need to fill one last spot in the garden, walk on by. If the plant is sadly not at its best due to bad watering or crunched foliage, is it beyond saving? If the overall plant core seems healthy, and the briken or damaged leaves can easily be removed, then a sale plant certainly deserves to be a someone’s garden.

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If you just can’t stop staring at the plant, just buy it! Certainly an extra plant or two can be squeezed in somewhere and the cost most likely will not break the bank. Of course one last thing is the price vs the condition of that plant or shrub. A local garden centre near me recently had it’s 30% sale but as their prices run much higher than anywhere else, the sale wasn’t really great but they did have  a larger variety of plants. If the plant is really sad, but you need it, there is no harm in asking if they will take less, especially as the peak planting season is almost past.

Remember if you will be away on vacation or at the cottage, those plants will need a sitter to keep the summer’s heat from killing your lovely summer blooms. Even apartment dwellers with window boxes and veggies growing in all manner of containers, will need close care in the heat of the summer.

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Giant Coleus in Planter Box

 

Summer bloom care list

To ensure you have good blooms all summer remember to follow the basic list

1. good water

Most plants need to be kept from drying out too much so a good water twice a week should eb fine. Daily watering, whether it be the lawn or garden, keeps the plants roots closer to the soil surface and then a severe drought or a forgotten trip can cause the plant to dry up and die quite quicky due to no deep root formation.

2. fertilizing

Regular fertilixzing with organic ferilizers ( preferred) or the slow release type provide basic nutrients ensuring a hartier, healthier plant with showier bloom. Keep in main theat by the end of July and definitely in to August, most applications run the risk of  burning the plant out as its metabolism increases at a time when both the temperature and water condtions are not optimal.

3. deadheading

Deadheading of some plants such as petunias are well known, all plants benefite form thei, as then their energy can be put in to growing , not seed production. Once a bloom is past it’s prime, snip it off . Removing the dying bloom also makes the plant look tidier and obviously well cared for.

4. pest control

Especially in summer’s high heat days, all manner of garden pest seek, food, and shade. They also need the plants sap as a good source of water. On lily plants. removing the dark “poo” like substances on the leaves, removes the beginnings of the lily beetle that loves to consume the leaves . If the bugs are larger, wearing garden gloves, carefully remove them. If they return or you have small bugs such as aphids,  try straying on a mixture of warm water containing some dish soap, small amount of cooking oil and if that doesn’t keep  work, there are slightly more concentrated organic soap solutions that can be bought at more garden centres and greenhouses.

Milkweed and pests

Milkweed and pests

 

 

5. weeding

Weeding not only ensures a tidy garden it also removes the roots of those unwanted plants that would compete with those of the plants you choose to keep. Most weeds and wildflowers have a great tap root or wide root base that ensure they survive in nature to return each year.

 

Of course as you admire your garden you may already be planning changes for new year or just sitting like moss…a bump on a log.

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  For those you of you more adventurous…maybe seeing wildflowers for the water…kayaking across the country…may inspire you to as we live in a wondrous place…enjoy!

 

EARTH, WATER, SKY

EARTH, WATER, SKY

Tune in next month for further information and glorious photos of summer blooms in Nova Scotia

Plant Family Classification

Recently I have been busy researching and writing all manner of plant related areas and have developed a new realization of how plants are connected from the past to the present, and from one part of the world to another, just as we are. Until now, it never occurred to me that the mums on my porch are possible direct descendants of one, on another porch, in another country long ago or that someone in a distant country may be watering their own pot of mums.

 

 Certainly being inspired by my garden has led me on some unexpected paths. Even in reading about many of the common plants I have written about, the Asteraceace family keeps popping up. With my curiosity peaked, I began to look at the connections between plants and have discovered the scientific classification of all living things. While we humans are on another branch… all life on this planet is a part of the tree!

Perhaps my condensed version of plant classification will interest you to read on and provide you with a basic understanding of plant names you see printed everywhere.

 Classification

Taxonomy, from the Greek words “taxis” or arrangement and “nomia” which means method, is the name given to the academic method of classifying all living things. This method groups organisms that share characteristics and gives each group a name. Then the scientific community has placed these groups in a hierarchy based on their order of importance, which shows where that group fits in the big picture.

The biological classification is very complicated once you delve in to it, but on a simple level it gives the relative connection between organisms or plants. To do this, it uses taxonomic ranks, including, among others (in order from most inclusive to least inclusive): Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. Living things are classified into five kingdoms that are Prokarya, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi and Protoctista. Of course we are far down the Animalia branch, just as the plants in our gardens are down in the Plantae branch, but today I am checking out plant classification while leaving the humans being…

 

 

 

 

Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/classification-of-living-things.html

Plant classification beginnings

 

Aristotle to Pliny the Elder:

Historical records reveal that early forms of organism classification begin with Aristotle (Greece, 384-322 BC) who began some of the first recorded plant studies. One of his students named Theophrastus (Greece, 370-285 BC) continued the work and wrote a publication classifying 480 plants including Crocus and Narcissus which are still used today. Pliny the Elder (Rome, 23-79 AD) wrote a 160-volume work which described a large number of plants even giving some Latin binomial names.

 

 Pre-Linnaean plant taxonomists:

While many learned scientist worked on plants worldwide, I found that records stated that no significant taxonomic works replaced the ancient texts for approximately 1500 years as the visual and physical means were exhausted. With the development of the early optical systems such as magnifying glasses and microscopes, classification began in earnest again, as the structure of organisms could be studied in detail.

 

early compound light microscope

 

 

Globally the botanists and other scientists worked on studying plants and classifying them. I could find no females listed although I am certain they did exist. Instead, I have included only a sampling of the male botanists who impacted the taxonomy of plants through the years.

Andrea Cesalpino ( Italy, 1519–1603),  wrote a book  that described over 1500 plant species, including two large plant families Asteraceae and Brassicaceae which are still in use today.

 

 

 

 

 John Ray (England, 1627–1705) wrote a large number of significant taxonomic works with information and classifications of over 18,000 plant species.

Gaspard Bauhine (Switzerland 1560 m-16624)in his work Pinax, proposed two name classification of over 6000 plants.

In the same time frame, the next major taxonomic works were produced by  Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (France, 1656–1708), which included over 9000 species in 698 genera. History states that these works specifically influenced one young student Swedish student named Carolus Linneaus.

 The Linnaean era:

Carolus Linnaeus( 1707-1778) became a botanist who led the field on plant classifying. He published major works and fully put in to place the binomial naming system that had begun with his predecessors.

 

Many of his works, including the largest publications Species Plantarum ( The Species of Plants 1753) and Systema Naturae were translated to English making them more accessible to the scientific world. In fact, Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, translated many of Linnaeus’s published works. Even today, before naming a new plant discovery, Linnaeus’s work is used as the reference point to ensure any name chosen for it, has not been previously used.

The Binomial System:

Based on the largest system of plant identification groups, plant tags in nursery pots would need to be huge! Certainly each plant belongs to a Family, whose name always ends in “aceae”. All members of a particular family share certain groups of characteristics that are not found in other families.

For example, looking up Family names such as – Rosaceae (rose family) or Liliaceae (lily family) provide information and understanding of all the plants in that family. Examples of this information would include data on the plants requirements to grow, the physical characteristics, seed information and more found below the family classification, comes the two levels that make up what is known as the Binomial System.

Whether aware of it or not, most gardeners worldwide are  familiar with the Binomial System as commonly displayed on nursery stock plant tags .Until I looked in to classifications, I knew of Genus and Species,  but generally referred to plants by what is their “common name”. The biggest drawback here is that there are many common names for any one plant. According to one article I read, the White Lily and marsh marigold both have over 200 common names.

Thankfully, the scientific community uses the more precise Binomial system in naming of a plant and for further understanding of the characteristics of the group that plant is classed in. While this system was introduced by several men, it was to Carolus Linneaus who is credited with permanently ensuring the advancement of this system. Expressed in Latin, the twodivsions are the genus and the species.

 

 

Genus:

Each plant family is further divided in to groups of plants that are more closely related, with from one genus to as many as 950 genera (plural). The first part of the binomial system is the genus and it always starts with a capital letter.

 

Species:

Each genus is further subdivided into species. This is the second word in a plant’s botanical name and begins with lower-case letters. Most genera contain two or more species that share most characteristics and reproduce by seed with minor variations. In addition members of a species do not usually interbreed successfully with members of a different species. Species names begin with lower-case letters.

 

Genus and Species name selections:

There are many ways these names were determined, including choosing a name to honour the person who discovered the plants, a famous person they admire or even the country the plant originated from. One good everyday example of this is the Coffee Plant. The official genus name  comes from one aspect of the plant…its use as a beverage….so it is named after Coffea, the Latinized form of the Arabic word for beverage. The species name of Arabica, was given as the plant was thought to have originated in Arabia. So now anywhere in the word you see a plant with the botanical name, Coffea Arabica, you would find the same unique plant.

 

Coffea arabica

 

For the scientific community these classifications ensure that any further identification and research across the world, is connected and all information shared applies to the same plant no matter where it is located. Still plant classification can be difficult as some species in nature closely resemble another, there is interbreeding that produces subspecies and hybrids even in the wild.

 

Subspecies, Variety:

If there is a third word, or short form such as subsp, ssp., or var., in a plants botanical name, that indicates a subspecies or variety.  While these terms are not interchangeable to a botanist, to regular people it means the plant has most characteristics of their species with a slight difference such as in flower color or leaf size. These plants can interbreed to form fertile seeds that will grow in to identical plants.

 

Cultivar: (horticultural variety or clone)

A cultivar is a plant or group of plants propagated by careful breeding for some desirable characteristic. Their name is usually the genus name with the species, followed by the cultivar name in quotation marks.  One example we see regularly are popular ornamental garden plants like roses ,camellias, daffodils, and azaleas where cultivars are deliberately bred for colour and form .Even the vast majority of the world’s food has been cultivated and selected for resistance to disease, improved yields and flavours.

 

Hybrid:

This is a distinct plant resulting from a cross between two species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, strains – or any combination as well as between two plants belonging to different genera. While some hybridization can occur in the wild, usually it is done deliberately by horticulturalists trying for an effect, such as those trying to hybridize African Violets that produce a blue flower. Unfortunately often hybrids cannot produce fertile seeds or if seeds are produced they grow the stronger strain or plant used. Once I had an odd annual hybrid plant thet was a lime green instead of its usual white and the plants began to revert even before seeds were produced.

Strain:

Many popular annuals and some perennials are sold as strains that are usually the result of breeding and deliberate selection for a certain characteristic like height or flower colour. Again those characteristics can easily disappear in the next generation of the plant, especially if left to pollinate naturally.

http://theseedsite.co.uk/families.html

From the plant world’s point of view classification has gone from B.C. era where studying was done by sight, scent and physical characteristics to DNA studies which are used in Genetically Modifying plants. But, as far as gardeners are concerned whether it be annual, perennials, vegetables or trees and shrubs, how they adorn out gardens and life our spirits is the most important thing.

From garden centres and green house, plants come in all shapes and sizes no matter where in the world we are. The tags generally contain information on each one, certainly the genus and species name, which has more history and information attached to them than we realized. Now when I buy a plant I can almost imagine someone in their country garden on the other side of the world… reading the same plant’s tag !

 

Motivational Inspiration

Motivational inspiration

 

Motivational inspiration varies from person to person, as actions or changes we make in our lives that come from some form of inspiration. Motivational  is the term applied to any  change or new project we might take on as inspiration itself moves us.

Inspiration…now that is a tough thing to define for each person! Of course, as I claimed this is what started my blog, I have been giving this subject a great deal of thought. When the cottage garden flowers and all their colours got me out of the doldrums I had been in, having a green lawn was the furthest thing from my mind. 

 

In fact, my brain was pretty bogged down with a zillion and one worries, not unlike most other people, especially mothers! So what was I hoping for here was to provide help and inspiration.

It seems so far the part that has helped me most was writing the steps to a greener lawn , and although rather dull, it was a form of motivational inspiration!  To some, having a lovely lawn can be inspiring  and certainly it helped me feel better to drive up to my house in the city and see a green lawn where potholes once were. 

Motivational inspiration

Motivational inspiration is seldom an issue for enthusiastic gardeners! For all you gardeners that love your green blades of grass, enjoy! If the colours, sounds and movement of a newly refurbished garden , inspire you to try your hand at water painting, wood carving, scroll sawing, wooden garden art , writing a song, or dancing a jig then the inspiration of nature has helped bring you joy!

 

Joy however is not a word I would use to describe such natural things such as slugs, grubs and other squishy garden pests! Of course they are great snacks for birds, toads and even birds and beetles. 

 

 

Then of course, there is the matter of the Poison Ivy that is found growing along the ground and climbing to new heights through many a country meadow. Norfolk County, where my country cottage is located, is, as one local official stated, the Poison Ivy capital of Canada.

 

These leaves of three, along with those of Poison Oak and Poison Sumac contain an oil called Urushiol that causes an allergic reaction in approximately 85 % of the population. The oil can stay for months to years on articles of clothing etc and is even active in the smoke if you try and burn the poison Ivy. After several encounters with it myself I can tell you it will make deep potholes in your skin, make you swell up and  get very, very itchy.

What remains a mystery to me then is that birds, sheep and goats can eat poison ivy with no reaction…I guess they have strong stomachs! Personally a nice garden salad suits me better, with oil and vinegar dressing please. In fact there is nothing quite as yummy as fresh from your garden greens, tomatoes and other fresh veggies.

 

 

Unfortunately unlike Poison Ivy, garden veggies do not grow well without proper tending and with my time split between city and country (not to mention work), there is no vegetable garden at all this year. Despite motivational inspiration, last year I tried tomatoes in the city and onions in the country but both struggled  and withered with neglect…sob…I killed the poor things!

On a positive note, thanks to some hard work by myself and designated weeders who were corralled in to helping, both locations have something stimulating to see that brightens my days. Of course there are always worries galore that can bog us down and having a beautiful garden can’t take away painful things, but for brief moments a lovely landscape, art form or bloom can make me smile and sometimes gives me a brainwave or insight on a situation that hadn’t been considered…motivational inspiration!

 

Columbine Delight

Consider then that gardens are part of a meditation progress that can help us breath and clear the mind. There are a few techniques used in meditation including The “Conscious Breath” meditation that helps you to become aware of your breathing, without controlling it. I cannot begin to cover the subject of meditation breathing, conscious breathing, breathing for yoga, counted breath nor all the other defined relaxation and healing impacts from good, deep breathing.

 The two sites below are a fraction of those available on line that gives the reader some sense of the need to “take a deep breath” and relax.

 

http://helpguide.org/mental/stress_relief_meditation_yoga_relaxation.htm

 

http://healing.about.com/od/breathwork/a/consciousbreath.htm

  

By using these techniques or even that of mindful watching…of the wind blowing through the trees, bobbing flower heads, lifting birds high in to the sky can teach us many things. We can be reminded that so much is beyond our control and yet there is a newness and energy to life that we can harness if we choose! Let this inspiration motivate you to take a chance and try something new and remember the old saying…Rome wasn’t built in a day!

 

Weeds or Wildflowers: the debate continues

Organic gardening, while great for the health of the planet, certainly takes some good planning and hard work. Just look at the number of hours I have been preoccupied with the green shoots of grass that are sparsely spread across sections of my lawn. But I certainly couldn’t help it when the bald spot is there catching my eye every time I go in or out the back door or drive up to the house. Now of course my house, even though it is in a big city, is really a cottage stuck in a time warp. Now the one thousand square foot bungalow is surrounded by tall pine trees and tall weeds.

Okay the garden weeds can have nice shaped leaves and often even pretty flowers but their odd shapes and height make for one messy looking lawn. Although not a very neat person, this horticultural mish-mash has been driving me crazy! In fact, I learned a thing or two about myself as I followed my own steps in the Save the Lawn Project. From this experience I reinforced my ability to work hard at something I love…being outdoors. What I had not realized was how little patience I have for some repetitious chores. Yes watering the same area over and over, day after day is trying, monotonous and keeps me from the inspirational garden I really want to be working on.

While inspiration for this blog started after staring at the new growth in the cottage garden, not all of the greenery was a plant we value, as a garden treasure. Certainly some weeds almost fool you in to believing they are real plants. Others are just scraggly, spiky things that can make you sneeze or even give you a rash (we won’t even mention the poison ivy).

After a current weeding session at the cottage, which is in farm country, I decided to surf the Internet to try and identify some of the weeds there. Below is a listing related to field and crops that has a lovely WEED photo gallery. Who knew!

http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/IPM/english/weeds-herbicides/gallery/index.html

Of course we all have our very own weeds that we hate and sometimes even ones we love. Certainly Dandelions are cool looking with their lovely yellow bloom and even their dreamy looking white fuzzy seed state. Then there are the dubious weeds like forget-me-nots that have escaped from the garden and other self seeding plants such as the herb lemon balm which spreads everywhere and anywhere. I guess as someone once told me, they believed if it had lovely blossoms it was a wild flower and not a weed.

Pretty lawn weed

 

Dandelion Seeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on this definition, many unwanted growing things are weeds. Another term used to help us decide what may or may not be a weed is: a plant considered undesirable, unattractive, or troublesome, especially one growing where it is not wanted, as in a garden. Just think of how complicated and messy my yard would be if the lawn was full of assorted, unwanted plants and my garden was full of lovely thick lawn grass…how uninspiring would that be!

Certainly as I want to motivate you all to have lovely, organic inspirational areas to play, sit, and dream in, what I described would definitely not be a motivating space. Without a doubt my yard temporarily falls in to this less than desirably category, I am using this blog also to get myself in gear and take simple steps that will give me the meditation space I so need. In fact as I recall the need for peace in my garden and realize how obsessed with weeds and other stray things I have become, I realize everything growing has its place…just not in my sod or my garden.

While things grow everywhere and anywhere, it seems they are literally rooted in ways that often make removal difficult. Take for example the tap root of a dandelion that anchors it firmly and also sends out a new plant if every tiny bit of root is not removed. Then there some like the plantain that has numerous hairy roots that cover a wider range of soil to anchor their base. Creepers, like Creeping Jenny, are also tough as they often have above ground laterally growing roots that also root from stem nodules. No wonder with these and even more means of thriving and spreading, unwanted vegetation can run amuck!

Certainly I am growing a new respect for the tough weeds that grow and flower everywhere and anywhere they choose. In fact, I realized that their fortitude was a good example of how being tough can help with one’s self preservation, especially when taking on new challenges. Who knew such unwanted greenery was a means to self enlightenment. Certainly this sounds like something Buddhist, but maybe after checking the library or the Internet to learn more about them, you will respect them for their stamina as well, even as you yank them out by their hair.

With the memory of pulling out my hair after many a weeding session still fresh in my mind, despite any inspired at those solitary plants that grow in the toughest conditions with poor soil and water levels, I am not starting a weed garden anytime soon…at least not on purpose! Of course maybe it would become a new trend that could start with one single, lovely beach wildflower…or is that a weed…judge for yourself!

 

 

Beach Wildflower