Gardening Vacation in Nova Scotia

A gardening vacation in Nova Scotia is not just time to explore a new place , but is a time to get away  and enjoy the gardens of others while  taking some time away from our own gardens. By travelling to other parts of any country you can enjoy the colours and scents of many beautiful gardens. These joys may also remind us of things about our gardens they we have stopped appreciating there.

 

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

This August after months of  …weeding, watering, weeding and more watering, I decided to take a break and head East. With a chance to see and experience new places and leave chores and all manner of work behind, vacations are always a treat! Besides, with my garden in the capable hands of a family member and a waning appreciation for it, I needed a new perspective.

Years ago my trips to the East coast had led me to many lovely  places and to a wonderful hospitality but I had not specifically been focused on gardens, so I decided to take it all in this trip. With camera in hand, this it was to be a gardening vacationing in Nova Scotia, in search of  gardens as well as the shoreline and all of nature’s beauty.

 

ocean view from Nova Scotia

ocean view from Nova Scotia

 

My Nova scotia visits previously had been restricted to Halifax , where I had seen pretty gardens on the grounds of the Citadel and along the waterfront there and across the bay at Dartmouth. The grounds of many a park there had well manicured brightly coloured flower beds, so I knew the provinces gardeners were hard at work in big cities.

Dartmouth planter

Dartmouth planter

Having spent little time elsewhere in Nova Scotia, this trip was a chance to explore two of my favourite things…beaches and gardens. Having a coastline on both the Bay of Fundy and extensively on the Atlantic Ocean, I knew the shoreline visits wouldn’t disappoint me.

Not until I took my eyes off the waves and the sand did I notice there were even blooms on the beach.

 

lovely beach flowerBeach flower

 

 

 

 

 

Then the gardening vacation of Nova Scotia took full stride. Every harbour, Inn and most houses had lovely gardens everywhere. They used Lupines, marigold, begonias and salvia just like in our gardens. There were window boxes, front gardens and every kind of container imaginable.

P1010340P1030655original planter

 

 

 

 

There were blooms around lighthouses, planted by multitudes of gardeners! I saw ferns and wrought iron works and gazebos that reminded me of my own garden and made me smile. In fact, there were more blue Hydrangeas there that I have even seen here!

P1000860

Gardening in Nova Scotia

 

Blue Hydrangea in  a Shelburne N.S garden

Blue Hydrangea in a Shelburne N.S garden

 

Blue Hydrangea

Blue Hydrangea

 

Summing up my garden vacation to the province of Nova Scotia… I would say it was a multi-coloured masterpiece, full of bright and blooming annuals and perennials. The beaches were fascinating , the people warm and the trip was a great vacation in every way. I went home rested, with a new perspective on life, work and gardening.

Memorial garden Digby

Memorial garden Digby

main street Digby NS

main street Digby NS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consider your garden from a different view by enjoying the sights, memories, garden hints and photographs of gardens far from home. I would highly recommend next summer you take your own garden vacation of Nova Scotia, explore the province and appreciate its beauty and biodiversity and be inspired!

 

Cape Forchu Lighthouse and garden

Cape Forchu Lighthouse and garden

Plant Family Classification

Recently I have been busy researching and writing all manner of plant related areas and have developed a new realization of how plants are connected from the past to the present, and from one part of the world to another, just as we are. Until now, it never occurred to me that the mums on my porch are possible direct descendants of one, on another porch, in another country long ago or that someone in a distant country may be watering their own pot of mums.

 

 Certainly being inspired by my garden has led me on some unexpected paths. Even in reading about many of the common plants I have written about, the Asteraceace family keeps popping up. With my curiosity peaked, I began to look at the connections between plants and have discovered the scientific classification of all living things. While we humans are on another branch… all life on this planet is a part of the tree!

Perhaps my condensed version of plant classification will interest you to read on and provide you with a basic understanding of plant names you see printed everywhere.

 Classification

Taxonomy, from the Greek words “taxis” or arrangement and “nomia” which means method, is the name given to the academic method of classifying all living things. This method groups organisms that share characteristics and gives each group a name. Then the scientific community has placed these groups in a hierarchy based on their order of importance, which shows where that group fits in the big picture.

The biological classification is very complicated once you delve in to it, but on a simple level it gives the relative connection between organisms or plants. To do this, it uses taxonomic ranks, including, among others (in order from most inclusive to least inclusive): Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. Living things are classified into five kingdoms that are Prokarya, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi and Protoctista. Of course we are far down the Animalia branch, just as the plants in our gardens are down in the Plantae branch, but today I am checking out plant classification while leaving the humans being…

 

 

 

 

Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/classification-of-living-things.html

Plant classification beginnings

 

Aristotle to Pliny the Elder:

Historical records reveal that early forms of organism classification begin with Aristotle (Greece, 384-322 BC) who began some of the first recorded plant studies. One of his students named Theophrastus (Greece, 370-285 BC) continued the work and wrote a publication classifying 480 plants including Crocus and Narcissus which are still used today. Pliny the Elder (Rome, 23-79 AD) wrote a 160-volume work which described a large number of plants even giving some Latin binomial names.

 

 Pre-Linnaean plant taxonomists:

While many learned scientist worked on plants worldwide, I found that records stated that no significant taxonomic works replaced the ancient texts for approximately 1500 years as the visual and physical means were exhausted. With the development of the early optical systems such as magnifying glasses and microscopes, classification began in earnest again, as the structure of organisms could be studied in detail.

 

early compound light microscope

 

 

Globally the botanists and other scientists worked on studying plants and classifying them. I could find no females listed although I am certain they did exist. Instead, I have included only a sampling of the male botanists who impacted the taxonomy of plants through the years.

Andrea Cesalpino ( Italy, 1519–1603),  wrote a book  that described over 1500 plant species, including two large plant families Asteraceae and Brassicaceae which are still in use today.

 

 

 

 

 John Ray (England, 1627–1705) wrote a large number of significant taxonomic works with information and classifications of over 18,000 plant species.

Gaspard Bauhine (Switzerland 1560 m-16624)in his work Pinax, proposed two name classification of over 6000 plants.

In the same time frame, the next major taxonomic works were produced by  Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (France, 1656–1708), which included over 9000 species in 698 genera. History states that these works specifically influenced one young student Swedish student named Carolus Linneaus.

 The Linnaean era:

Carolus Linnaeus( 1707-1778) became a botanist who led the field on plant classifying. He published major works and fully put in to place the binomial naming system that had begun with his predecessors.

 

Many of his works, including the largest publications Species Plantarum ( The Species of Plants 1753) and Systema Naturae were translated to English making them more accessible to the scientific world. In fact, Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin, translated many of Linnaeus’s published works. Even today, before naming a new plant discovery, Linnaeus’s work is used as the reference point to ensure any name chosen for it, has not been previously used.

The Binomial System:

Based on the largest system of plant identification groups, plant tags in nursery pots would need to be huge! Certainly each plant belongs to a Family, whose name always ends in “aceae”. All members of a particular family share certain groups of characteristics that are not found in other families.

For example, looking up Family names such as – Rosaceae (rose family) or Liliaceae (lily family) provide information and understanding of all the plants in that family. Examples of this information would include data on the plants requirements to grow, the physical characteristics, seed information and more found below the family classification, comes the two levels that make up what is known as the Binomial System.

Whether aware of it or not, most gardeners worldwide are  familiar with the Binomial System as commonly displayed on nursery stock plant tags .Until I looked in to classifications, I knew of Genus and Species,  but generally referred to plants by what is their “common name”. The biggest drawback here is that there are many common names for any one plant. According to one article I read, the White Lily and marsh marigold both have over 200 common names.

Thankfully, the scientific community uses the more precise Binomial system in naming of a plant and for further understanding of the characteristics of the group that plant is classed in. While this system was introduced by several men, it was to Carolus Linneaus who is credited with permanently ensuring the advancement of this system. Expressed in Latin, the twodivsions are the genus and the species.

 

 

Genus:

Each plant family is further divided in to groups of plants that are more closely related, with from one genus to as many as 950 genera (plural). The first part of the binomial system is the genus and it always starts with a capital letter.

 

Species:

Each genus is further subdivided into species. This is the second word in a plant’s botanical name and begins with lower-case letters. Most genera contain two or more species that share most characteristics and reproduce by seed with minor variations. In addition members of a species do not usually interbreed successfully with members of a different species. Species names begin with lower-case letters.

 

Genus and Species name selections:

There are many ways these names were determined, including choosing a name to honour the person who discovered the plants, a famous person they admire or even the country the plant originated from. One good everyday example of this is the Coffee Plant. The official genus name  comes from one aspect of the plant…its use as a beverage….so it is named after Coffea, the Latinized form of the Arabic word for beverage. The species name of Arabica, was given as the plant was thought to have originated in Arabia. So now anywhere in the word you see a plant with the botanical name, Coffea Arabica, you would find the same unique plant.

 

Coffea arabica

 

For the scientific community these classifications ensure that any further identification and research across the world, is connected and all information shared applies to the same plant no matter where it is located. Still plant classification can be difficult as some species in nature closely resemble another, there is interbreeding that produces subspecies and hybrids even in the wild.

 

Subspecies, Variety:

If there is a third word, or short form such as subsp, ssp., or var., in a plants botanical name, that indicates a subspecies or variety.  While these terms are not interchangeable to a botanist, to regular people it means the plant has most characteristics of their species with a slight difference such as in flower color or leaf size. These plants can interbreed to form fertile seeds that will grow in to identical plants.

 

Cultivar: (horticultural variety or clone)

A cultivar is a plant or group of plants propagated by careful breeding for some desirable characteristic. Their name is usually the genus name with the species, followed by the cultivar name in quotation marks.  One example we see regularly are popular ornamental garden plants like roses ,camellias, daffodils, and azaleas where cultivars are deliberately bred for colour and form .Even the vast majority of the world’s food has been cultivated and selected for resistance to disease, improved yields and flavours.

 

Hybrid:

This is a distinct plant resulting from a cross between two species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, strains – or any combination as well as between two plants belonging to different genera. While some hybridization can occur in the wild, usually it is done deliberately by horticulturalists trying for an effect, such as those trying to hybridize African Violets that produce a blue flower. Unfortunately often hybrids cannot produce fertile seeds or if seeds are produced they grow the stronger strain or plant used. Once I had an odd annual hybrid plant thet was a lime green instead of its usual white and the plants began to revert even before seeds were produced.

Strain:

Many popular annuals and some perennials are sold as strains that are usually the result of breeding and deliberate selection for a certain characteristic like height or flower colour. Again those characteristics can easily disappear in the next generation of the plant, especially if left to pollinate naturally.

http://theseedsite.co.uk/families.html

From the plant world’s point of view classification has gone from B.C. era where studying was done by sight, scent and physical characteristics to DNA studies which are used in Genetically Modifying plants. But, as far as gardeners are concerned whether it be annual, perennials, vegetables or trees and shrubs, how they adorn out gardens and life our spirits is the most important thing.

From garden centres and green house, plants come in all shapes and sizes no matter where in the world we are. The tags generally contain information on each one, certainly the genus and species name, which has more history and information attached to them than we realized. Now when I buy a plant I can almost imagine someone in their country garden on the other side of the world… reading the same plant’s tag !

 

Pond plants of Point Pelee National Park

Pond plants of Point Pelee National Park

Pond plants of Point Pelee National Park are amazing.Recently I  observed these pond plants, up close and personal as I was travelling throughout   South Western Ontario. In addition , I had the pleasure of seeing a wide variety of  garden, both traditional garden, an natural ones along and under waterways and many lovely pond plant. While to home gardeners, their own private space is treasured as a source of joy, peace and sometimes inspiration, to the adventurous the world of nature contains this and more.

Several weeks ago I saw native cone-flowers and other Carolinian woodland plants including poison ivy, wild grape vines and Queen Anne’s lace on Pelee Island. While marsh areas or wetlands both are part of  Canada’s Carolinian Eco system, on the island the marshlands have been dramatically reduced to a small section near the north east shoreline.

Pond plants of Point Pelee National park, on the other hand,have lots of room to grow  as, according to their literature, the park is approximately 80% marsh. This southern most point of mainland Canada also has a spit that juts in to Lake Erie similar to that of the island but is shorter in length. Composed of glacial sand, silt and gravel, the point here is approximately 4.5 Km wide at the north and approximately 7 km in length.

 

Point Pelee National Park

The point was named Point Pelee or Bare Point by the French explorers who discovered it, as the east side was rock and had no trees. After researching the history of the area, I realized my collected data would make up a book and that there are already many on it. However, from this information and a sign in the park itself, I learned that the park is designated as a protected area Category 2 by the international body IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources).

After further reading about the IUCN’s mandate of conserving biodiversity, and information on the park’s wetlands,  I really began to think about the significance of the diversity there. Point Pelee National Park is not only a significant Carolinian forest tract, but the ponds and pond plants there are home to a valuable aquatic ecosystem.

 

Unfortunately as civilization progresses, all too often the wetlands of Ontario are being filled in . A number of animals and birds can adapt by moving their habitat and following other food sources, but the toads, frogs, fish and minnows just to name a few, cannot live without the water!  Even the pond bottoms are important as the muck there provides food and shelter for many tiny creatures and nutrition for the many pond plants.

Plants wherever they may be, provide interest for the observer, but they also provide food for the insects that feed on them. While  garden pests  at  home are annoying and I wish they would just vanish, I never wanted them to become extinct…victims of a disappearing habitat. Little did I know how my recent kayak trip in this national park would connect me with this reality.

 

Entrance to Point Pelee National Park

A friend and I drove past countless cottages that lined the shore of the point as we headed in to Pelee National Park with kayaks and gear, ready for a day of adventure. Under a glorious blue sky we watched birds soar and nest at a three storey bird observation tower while we prepared to launch. With hats, suntan lotion and life vest on, we seated ourselves comfortably and headed in to a narrow channel as we headed out to see pond plants of Pelee National Park.

Pond plants of Point Pelee National Park

 

 

Following the channel, which ran alongside a raised boardwalk at first, it wasn’t long before we spotted nature’s water gardens…pond plants galore! At the start there were a few white water lilies but as the water passage widened their number grew until white blooms were as far as the eye could see. In fact more flowering plants were seen than I had dared imagine

 

Pond plants of Point Pelee National Park

Pond plants of Point Pelee National Park are amazing!Between the big lily pads of the white flowers whose many petals stuck out like little spikes, there were smaller bright yellow ones with curled up petals. Of course I got my handy, tiny camera out of my life vest pocket and began to snap away!Pond plants at Point Pelee National park are everywhere! Not to be outdone were the smaller but lovely blue/purple blooms of what I later identified as Pickerelweed. Before long the channel tightened and as we rounded the bend, large pink flowers appeared that looked like the mallow in my garden back home.

Pickerelweed flower

Wild Mallow

 

 

 

 

 

 

These tall blooms grew high among the tall cattails as part of a lovely marshland bouquet. The sounds of these plants swishing in the warm wind blowing and the call of overhead birds combined in  nature’s  symphony! While this day had been amazing so far, little did I know there were  more surprises in store, as  I floated along with the pond plants of  Point Pelee National Park.

Before leaving this view behind and turning back past the windsock  that flew high overhead by the main channel back, I decided to risk the small lake ahead. The wind had picked up as had the waves ,but with a little extra energy on the paddles it wasn’t long until I reached Nirvana! There in front of me were pale yellow flowers that rose over a foot out of the water and towered over the biggest floating leaves I had ever seen!

In fact, the leaves were so huge I needed a paddle blade in the picture for scale. Then there were the blossoms themselves, that blew in the breeze so I had to hold one tightly to admire and shoot up close. There were buds waiting to bloom, fully open flowers and an occasional seed head waiting to dry and drop its seeds to the bottom. What these pond plants were was a mystery to me, I hoped to solve later.

 

 

 

 

 

As the clouds rolled in and the waves picked up, my friend and I headed back to the safety of the shallow waters and so our aquatic garden tour had come to a close. Back at the hotel that night, I did some online research and found  all the information I had hoped for and more! The large yellow lily was in fact Nelumbo Lutea and is very rare in Canada!

Not only are the plants rare themselves, but they only flower in July and August with the flowers open from mid-morning to early afternoon. Wow I certainly timed it right! These gems, along with the more common white lily’s ( family Nymphaea ),and the tinier bright yellow Bullhead lily (Nuphar family) are just a few of the spectacular pond plants of Pelee National Park !

Bullhead Lily flower

 

White Water Lily

 

Certainly the need to protect the Carolinian ecosystem as a whole is important, and leaving the marshlands as unique sites of biodiversity is a must! Tempting as it was to take a dry seed head and try and grow in in water at home, I resisted.

Instead I donated extra funds to the park and hope to keep in touch with programmes and support they made need … and I might just be visiting an aquatic garden centre this coming spring, to stock up on my own pond plants!