Cuban Gardens

Cuban gardens were a new subject for me until I recently traded in our cold Canadian weather for a week of hot Cuban “winter” weather and a plant tour that reminded me of my indoor plants back home in Canada.

Cuban Resort garden

Cuban Resort garden

Not only were the blooms and foliage amazing, but the air itself is full of a scent that is indescribable. While unable to pinpoint any specific scent, upon closer examination  of Cuban gardens, I was able to identify many plants as those “tropicals”,  for sale in garden centres and greenhouses here in Ontario.

Schefflera

This four story plant is one of many Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree) plants growing around our resort and seen all over the island. Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree). The genus is fast growing in tropical and subtropical areas to the extent it is classified as a weed in these areas. With idea conditions here in Cuba, the actinophylla species has  long, shiny, oval green leaves that droop gracefully from a central stalk and  also produces long red tentacle blooms.

 

Schefflera flower

 

Here in Ontario Canada and other colder climates, where our cold winters prevent idea growth, we grow Schefflera arboricola (sometimes called dwarf schefflera)  which has much smaller leaves, sometimes with creamy variegation and generally doesn’t get the right conditions for blooming. Under ideal conditions it produces creamy coloured berries.

Schefflera_arboricola_

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Summer Blooms

Summer blooms need lots of tender loving care to ensure they are always producing new buds. Certainly as we are in mid July, by now most gardeners have worn out their green thumbs by planting and relocating countless perennials and annuals.Not to be forgotten are the countless seasonal flower sales that often drive gardeners in to a last minute frenzy as the temptation to have just one more summer bloom takes over.

Lily

 

 

Garden Sale points:

1. is there a spot in my garden for it

2. is the plant in good enough shape to survive the transplanting

3. is the price really a “sale”

4.  do I need it.

Certainly summer blooms are tempting, but unless a lovely perennial seems just what you need to fill one last spot in the garden, walk on by. If the plant is sadly not at its best due to bad watering or crunched foliage, is it beyond saving? If the overall plant core seems healthy, and the briken or damaged leaves can easily be removed, then a sale plant certainly deserves to be a someone’s garden.

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If you just can’t stop staring at the plant, just buy it! Certainly an extra plant or two can be squeezed in somewhere and the cost most likely will not break the bank. Of course one last thing is the price vs the condition of that plant or shrub. A local garden centre near me recently had it’s 30% sale but as their prices run much higher than anywhere else, the sale wasn’t really great but they did have  a larger variety of plants. If the plant is really sad, but you need it, there is no harm in asking if they will take less, especially as the peak planting season is almost past.

Remember if you will be away on vacation or at the cottage, those plants will need a sitter to keep the summer’s heat from killing your lovely summer blooms. Even apartment dwellers with window boxes and veggies growing in all manner of containers, will need close care in the heat of the summer.

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Giant Coleus in Planter Box

 

Summer bloom care list

To ensure you have good blooms all summer remember to follow the basic list

1. good water

Most plants need to be kept from drying out too much so a good water twice a week should eb fine. Daily watering, whether it be the lawn or garden, keeps the plants roots closer to the soil surface and then a severe drought or a forgotten trip can cause the plant to dry up and die quite quicky due to no deep root formation.

2. fertilizing

Regular fertilixzing with organic ferilizers ( preferred) or the slow release type provide basic nutrients ensuring a hartier, healthier plant with showier bloom. Keep in main theat by the end of July and definitely in to August, most applications run the risk of  burning the plant out as its metabolism increases at a time when both the temperature and water condtions are not optimal.

3. deadheading

Deadheading of some plants such as petunias are well known, all plants benefite form thei, as then their energy can be put in to growing , not seed production. Once a bloom is past it’s prime, snip it off . Removing the dying bloom also makes the plant look tidier and obviously well cared for.

4. pest control

Especially in summer’s high heat days, all manner of garden pest seek, food, and shade. They also need the plants sap as a good source of water. On lily plants. removing the dark “poo” like substances on the leaves, removes the beginnings of the lily beetle that loves to consume the leaves . If the bugs are larger, wearing garden gloves, carefully remove them. If they return or you have small bugs such as aphids,  try straying on a mixture of warm water containing some dish soap, small amount of cooking oil and if that doesn’t keep  work, there are slightly more concentrated organic soap solutions that can be bought at more garden centres and greenhouses.

Milkweed and pests

Milkweed and pests

 

 

5. weeding

Weeding not only ensures a tidy garden it also removes the roots of those unwanted plants that would compete with those of the plants you choose to keep. Most weeds and wildflowers have a great tap root or wide root base that ensure they survive in nature to return each year.

 

Of course as you admire your garden you may already be planning changes for new year or just sitting like moss…a bump on a log.

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  For those you of you more adventurous…maybe seeing wildflowers for the water…kayaking across the country…may inspire you to as we live in a wondrous place…enjoy!

 

EARTH, WATER, SKY

EARTH, WATER, SKY

Tune in next month for further information and glorious photos of summer blooms in Nova Scotia

Poison Ivy

Poison Ivy is a toxic plant that many campers, cottagers and rural gardeners are familiar with. I myself have been a victim of its rash and blisters and have become quite familiar with those leaflets three and so I do let them be. Only when I began to research Poison Ivy did I realize how little I did know and how far back people have been dealing with the consequences of coming in contact with this plant.

 

History of Poison Ivy

Originally rumored to have come from Europe, Poison Ivy has been in Americas for centuries. In fact, it was even documented as being observed first hand in Bermuda and the Americas by Captain John Smith in his publication Generall Histories of Virginia, New England and the Summer Isles written in 1624. “The poysoned weed is much in shape like our English Ivy, but being but touched, causeth rednesse, itching, and lastly blisters, the which howsoever after a while passe away of themselves without further harme, yet because for the time they are somewhat painfull, it hath got itselfe an ill name, although questionlesse of no ill nature.”

Even in the 1784 First Volume called Memoirs of the American Society of Arts and Science mentioned a plant that “produced inflammations and eruptions”. They then went on to nickname the plant as “poison Ivy”. Since then there have been countless articles, research and trials attempting to control the spread of this toxic plant.

Poison Ivy Plant Classification

Poison Ivy as we know it to be called is really just one of many poisonous plants in the family of Anacardiaceae. In fact the cashew tree whose name forms the basis of this family does have toxic resins in the casing that surrounds the nut itself.

The English word for this family is derived from two Portuguese words which describe how the cashew nut grows… “ana” which means upward and “cardium” which means heart. Originally native to Northern Brazil, the Cashew was taken by the Portuguese to Goa in India around the year 1560-65 and now they are grown in parts of Africa and throughout Southeast Asia.

 

 

Cashew  Apples

Cashew Apples

The cashew nut is really a seed, whose casing, called a cashew apple, contains skin irritating chemicals, one of which is related to the oil;  Urishiol found in poison ivy. In fact, roasting does destroy the compound, but just as with poison ivy, the smoke contains the chemical and inhalation causes severe lung irritations.

Interestingly enough the mango, which is in the same family, has an urushiol oil based allergen that can also cause dermatitis and even anaphylaxis in in some people. The urushiol is present in the mango leaves, stems, skin and sap. Eating unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, the skin of the mango is edible but susceptible people may still get dermatitis of the lips, or the tongue. Generally ripe mangos should be peeled before consumption to avoid the oils. Despite this, further research has provided data stating the during the mango primary ripening season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.

Originally Poison Ivy was known as Rhus radicans;  part of a the genus Rhus which contains over 250 species of flowering plants including all varieties of sumacs, poison ivy, and poison oak. Research data has suggested that the Genus be split in to 6, based on redefined plant characteristics. In this case there would be only approximately 35 plants left in the Rhus genus.

Created from further botanical clarification, botanists generally accept the reclassification of Poison Oak, Poison Sumac and Poison Ivy in to the genus Toxicodendron, which is Greek for two words, meaning toxic and tree. All three of these plants contain some version of chemical compounds called pentadecylcatechols or PDC’s. Found in the clear sap of these three plants as well as other members of the Anacardiaceae or Cashew family worldwide, the PDC’s are generally referred to as urushiol.

This term was taken from the Japanese name for a tree there called Toxicodendron  vernicifluum. Despite the toxic chemicals there, the Japanese have used an oxidized form of the tree sap, to produce its famous finish for their lacquer ware.

Poison Ivy Range

This particular toxic plant ranges from Canada to the north down through the United States, areas of Mexico and in to South America. Poison Ivy may be found in these countries up to approximately 1,500 M (4,900 ft) but is extremely common along the edges of wooded areas, in open fields and other undisturbed areas.

While it is recognized as a creeping plant, it also grows bush like. Regardless of the style of growth, poison ivy is considered officially a noxious weed here in Ontario Canada and in the U.S. states of Minnesota and Michigan. Although some varieties  are shade tolerant, all forms of this poison plant prefer sun and in fact Poison Ivy was recently located at my favourite beach!

 

 

Beach-side Poison Ivy warning sign

Beach-side Poison Ivy warning sign

Poison Ivy Forms

Basking in the sun, this shrub form is merely one of the three ways this plant can be found. In fact, the shrub can grow one main stem with side branches, up to over 1 metre (3 ft) tall. Certainly as it is called ivy, given a good support pole, plant or tree, poison Ivy can grow taller than you can imagine. A good example, (Or bad) is the large mass of vines attached to a pine trees at my cottage by hair like brown aerial roots to a height of over 25metres (80 Feet). The last form is as a groundcover of 10-25 cm (4-10inches), as often seen in campgrounds and growing between other native plants along roadsides.

Trillium and poison ivy roadside

Trillium and poison ivy roadside

 

Description

 

Roots

The vine and bush plants have a rhizome root base. This allows the roots and new plants to spread from the subterranean nodes. The aerial roots attach themselves to the plant / object for support and nutrition.

Poison Ivy root runner

Poison Ivy root runner

 

Stems

Poison Ivy stems are woody and grey. On small plants the colour may not be as noticeable, but is definitely seen on bush and trees climbing forms. In fact, the wood on the vines of poison ivy that are climbing up the pine trees at my cottage have a dark grey to reddish tint. Their hair- like roots, which are reddish in colour are also poisonous to humans.

450px-Poison_ivy_vine

 

Leaves

Despite knowing the old saying” leaflets three, let it be”, there are other plants with similar three leaf configuration. Generally there is one leaf and the end and two below that which are side by side. They are normally 10-20 cm (2-4inches) in length, with toothed or lobed edges, although occasionally the edges can be smooth.

Of course when they are small, but still containing urushiol, they begin with two leaves only, so weeding in the front of a rural garden especially can be dangerous if gloves are not worn. In the spring, the new leaves are a reddish green colour, changing to deep green and then yellow, orange and red in the fall before dropping off.

 

 

Flowers

Despite having poison ivy in various locations at my cottage, I had not seen the flowers myself until recently when visiting my favourite beach. In full sun the shrub form had developed 2.5 to 7.5 cm (1-3inch) clusters of the small green flowers. The tiny 5 petal blooms are quite often hidden under the leaves themselves.

 

Poison Ivy flower

Poison Ivy flower

 

Fruit/seeds

Small flowers produce small seeds and these tiny white berries are round, hard and about 0.4 cm (1/8inch) that have ridges in them that make them appear to have segments like a peeled orange. Forming in the fall, the berries contain the seeds of the plant which are spread by the over 50 species of birds that eat them with no ill effects.

 

Poison Ivy Berries/seeds

Poison Ivy Berries/seeds

 

 

Toxicity

It is estimated that 85% of the population is sensitive to the urushiol toxin found in all parts of the poison ivy plant. Skin reactions range from a slight dermatitis called Rhus dermatitis, to blisters. These blisters result from blood vessels somehow developing gaps in response to the chemical in the oil and then fluid leaks through in to the skin.  The blister themselves do not contain the urushiol.  In severe cases these blister cause tissue damage and may need plastic surgery to repair. In extreme situations, anaphylaxis may occur.

If you believe you have bruised the plant and released the oil, wash the affected area immediately with soap and water. Rubbing alcohol will also remove the oil and now specific lotions are available at the drugstore. According to recent testing, there is a compound in crushed Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) that relieve the effects of recent contact with poison ivy in about 85% of people tested. Dermatologists recommend oatmeal baths and baking soda to relieve the itching and there are prescription cortisol based lotions for more severe cases.

Remember that all clothing and even tools need to washed down well in the same way, because the oil remains potent indefinitely and it will re-poison you.  Further risk comes from transfer by other animals and even of burning the plant. Dogs for example have some resistance due to their thick fur and the natural oils there, but can transfer it to their owners’ hands. Smoke from burning any and all parts of this plant contain the oils and can cause serious allergic reactions inside lungs of susceptible people.

Control

Controlling Poison Ivy is a challenge regardless of the affected area, because of its toxic oils. As a result, the number one thing to remember is to wear protective clothing. Cloth or leather gardening gloves are recommended over rubber as according to several sources, the urushiol is soluble in rubber. Even in the garden at the cottage I wear gloves as …surprise…poison ivy alert under the perennials!

 

Poison Ivy in my garden

Poison Ivy in my garden

 

If the poison ivy is a few plants, growing as ground cover, then carefully pulling them out with all the roots works. Then the plant needs to be discarded safely. I have a large plastic pail with a lid, and the smaller pieces go in there to die completely. After a month, once there is no sign of life, I dig a hole about one foot deep and bury them.

When poison ivy is growing on a larger scale, the task of control definitely becomes difficult. One suggestion for large mass plants is covering them over with tarps and soil so no light reaches these and they will die. Of course they need to remain covered for several years before it is safe to assume they are dead.

Shrub forms of poison ivy are very difficult to deal with. If the shrub is not too large, herbicide spray can be used. The newest generation of these sprays interfere in the plants photosynthesis when the leaves are saturated. It is important to wear protective gloves , face shield  and disposable gloves when using these products.

Controlling Poison Ivy is possible, however, even using herbicides that do not leach in to the soil, getting rid of it for good is highly unlikely. In addition, beware of home remedies that are dangerous, such as pouring salt or bleach all over them because the soil is then contaminated and the chemicals can leach in to the water table.

Summary

While contact with poison ivy can have toxic consequences, by wearing gloves in the rural gardens and watching vegetation you are walking through carefully you can minimize your risk. If you live in the country and have dogs, the chances are much higher you may contact it from their coats. In that case, having a knowledge of treatment including rubbing alcohol and lotions would be a good precaution.

 

 

 

Hardening off seedlings

Hardening off seedlings is a necessary step in preparing your new seedlings for the giant leap in to the wilds of your garden. For those of you new to the seed planting process and its steps, ‘Hardening off” is the name or term give to the steps that “harden” or toughen up seedlings, ensuring they survive their permanent move to their new outdoor conditions.

 

Tiny seedlings

Tiny seedlings

 

Hardening off  dates  depend on individual plants and checking the corresponding seed packages will give the best temperature and approximate date for planting them in the garden or outside planters.   Combining this information with the predicted spring temperatures for your region, will allow you to pick the best actual planting day. With this date as the final goal, hardening off seedlings should begin 7- 10 days in advance.

From the warm, moist environment under grow lights or on sunny window ledges, the seedlings need to be gradually exposed to the differences in ultraviolet levels and temperature. In addition there is the physical impact of wind, rain and even garden creatures that can affect their ability to firmly root in the garden. In addition to the changes the tiny plants will face, the structure of the stems and leaves needs to be toughened up.

 

Plants natural Defense Layer

Specifically the outer waxy layer of the seedlings’ stems and leaves, known as the cuticle, needs to thicken up to prevent seedling death. This protective substance is formed by the outer epidermal layers of the plant to keep the moisture in the plants as well as to minimize sudden changes in temperature. Basically its role is to provide a good barrier between the plant and the environment around it.

Part of Hardening off seedlings then is moving them gradually from the pampered state they live in under our care, to ensure they adjust well to a new harsher environment. According to resources, there are a few things that can be done inside to help the tiny plants begin to form thicker cuticle layers.

 

Cuticle thickening

Indoor plants in ideal conditions tend to have thinner outer layers and longer, thinner cell structures, both of which make them highly susceptible to breaking off in the wind, drying out quickly and wilting even due to temperature fluctuations.

Allowing the seedlings to dry out between watering is a simple method to force the cells to shorten up and form a thicker cuticle in response to  evaporation  and as the plant tries to prevent any further moisture loss.. In addition a fan or even gentle manual stimulation by hand of the stems and leaves also encourages more compact plants and thicker cuticle formation.

cuticle

cuticle

 

 

Hardening off Seedlings Schedule

As mentioned, hardening off seedlings can be timed to optimal outside temperatures based on information from seed packages, or simply following the weather patterns for your area and the generally accepted date for the last frost. In south-western Ontario Canada, the Victoria Day long weekend (approximately 15-20th of May), is considered the safe planting time for other than fall hardy plants such as the annual pansies and perennials. Seedlings of annual and most vegetables need to be adjusted for 7 – 10 days starting after May 1st

 

Hardening off Aids

1. Sun rooms or enclosed porches

2. Greenhouses

3. Cloches

4. Cold frames

 

Sun rooms or enclosed porches

Hardening off seedlings does not require additional equipment, but there are various versions of plant and seedling protectors, depending on whether you move them outside directly or place them closer to outdoors by moving them to a protected environment such as a glass encased back porch or sun room   If these areas are used, then moving the seedlings earlier is fine as wind, rain, pests, temperatures and light levels are still more regulated than directly transferring to outdoors.

 

Greenhouses

Greenhouses, of course, are a dream come true to many gardeners and the ultimate in starting and protecting seedlings.  Hardening off here can be done by opening the glass during the day and closing it at night to keep the heat in. Of course if the greenhouse itself has additional heating, this should be turned back over a few days and then turned off completely. If none of the glass (or plastic) panels can be opened, then hardening off seedlings must be done by gradually moving them outside in the same manner from inside the house or the porch.

Mini greenhouses with plastic protection are currently available at big box and other garden stores in a price range the average consumer can afford. These come in many sizes, with role up doors, windows and other types of vents. Smaller units even have wheels so they can be used inside or in a porch and be rolled out for gradual seedling adjustment and rolled back in the evening.

 

Portable greenhouse in sunporch

Portable greenhouse in sun porch

 

 Cloches

Cloches or bell jars originally made of glass have been used for hundreds of years, by the Italians, French (Cloche is French for Bell), Dutch and the English.  They speeded up plant growth, kept moisture in, as well as wind and bugs out. Their use in North America had decreased over the later part of the 20th century but has been gaining in popularity again.  Traditional glass cloches had no vent openings and could steam the seedlings if not removed early in the day.

With the invention of various types of plastic and the Do-It-Yourself movement, many other variations are currently available at local garden centres or by mail order. The internet provides directions for several homemade versions including plastic milk bottle cloches where the bottle top can be removed to prevent heat build-up. When using cloches of any type, then hardening off seedlings from inside still needs to be done in stages before permanently planting them, to ensure lighting changes promote good growth with no steamed leaves.

 

Victorian cloches in a walled garden

Victorian cloches in a walled garden

 

Cold frames

Cold frames are transparent lidded structures that are placed low to the ground, to protect plants against the elements. Although kits are available  generally most are home building projects with    wooden frames have a hinged old glass window or sheeted plastic top that can easily be propped open for ventilation during the day and closed at night.  Due to their size in a home garden, cold frames can be  easily moved to ensure optimal light and  generally constructed with a sloped lid also ensures good light and rain runoff.

 

a Typical Coldframe

a Typical Coldframe

 

Basically these cold frames are used as unheated green houses, although heating cable can be used in them.  The micro-climate provided her promotes good see germination and hardening off. In addition they are used to extend extending the growing season by leaving them in place with the top open all summer and then closing it in the evenings once the cooler weather returns. Whether from indoors or greenhouses can be done by moving them in to a cold frame before final in ground planting.

 

Hardening off Points

– Allow 7- 10 day adjustment period

– begin moving seedling s outside in the early morning

–  put them in a sheltered shady spot like under a tree for approx. 3 hours the first day

–  bring them back in at night

–  increase their outside exposure by 1- 2 hours a day

–  after 2-4 days move them to early morning sun with afternoon shade and in at night still

–  after 7 days they give all day sun and stay out when night-time temperature over 15°C

–  when 7-10 days have passed ,transplant seedlings in to the ground on a cloudy day

–  water well

 

Additional Notes:  Cold frames or Cloche use

–   if seedlings  are being relocated to the  them begin with the same approximate schedule

–   3-4 hours of open exposure in the shady area for a day or two for light adjustment

–   open lids or remove bell during the day and close/cover in the evenings

–   after 7-10 days seedlings can be planted into the ground and frame /cloche can be removed entirely

–  for veggie crop extension cold frame lid can be left open all summer and used as above in the fall

 

seedling in ground

Hardened off seedling happy planted in the  ground

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seed planting in Spring and caring for sprouts

 Seed Planting in Spring

Seed planting in spring and caring for the sprouting seedlings are always popular pastimes and certainly April is one month that has Northern Hemisphere gardeners chomping at the bit.

 plant stuff and office 015plant stuff and office 042

 

 

 

 

Whether you had carefully scrutinized seed catalogues for your purchases or chosen them from the countless seed displays in local stores, you will have noticed the huge variety of seeds available!  Perhaps you collected seeds collected from last season’s garden, just as those in the Southern Hemisphere may be doing now as their gardens go dormant as colder weather approaches.

While many seedlings require different germination needs as previously written on this site, no matter  whether gardeners are working in large gardening centres or toiling over their grow lights and window sills, they are all hopeful those conditions have been met.

-_Seedling_-001

 Despite the complex process a seed goes through before the first sprout appears, from large global gardens such as Viceroy’s Palace Garden in India and Tsarskoe Selo Russia, through to massive garden shows like Canada Blooms to our small but priceless gardens, each carefully planted seed carries with it the hope and perspiration of many hands.

Now that seeds are under the lights, or on a sunny window ledge the tricky part begins. Keeping a few simple points in mind should ensure the sprouts you watch daily, will grow tall and healthy awaiting their new home in your garden or planters.

 

plant stuff and office 053

 

POST GERMINATION CARE

While the information on temperature, light and moisture levels seem pretty straightforward, to novice gardens especially, these both require careful monitoring. In addition, fertilizing is important in the right strength, to help ensure healthy hearty plants come from your seed planting in spring.

 

Temperature

If possible, providing a source of gentle warming from beneath is a valuable tool, enabling most seeds to germinate faster as it mimics the warm soil of your garden or planter. Certainly the top of refrigerators were once the site of many seed tray and seedlings, the newer model appliances give off very little heat. However, if they allow good sunlight, this would still be a good location for both new seeds and struggling seedlings.

The temperature requirements of most seeds are on the packages, but generally whether purchased or collected; seeds and seedlings both have minimum temperatures for good growth. Generally this is approximately 65 º F or 18 º C but above 68 º or 20 º is better. In addition, the optimal temperature is one if many pieces of information on the seed packages.

Heated seed tray starting kits are a big help as the try comes with a heating pad designed to warm the seeds from the bottom at an even temperature. Unfortunately on the one I purchased the actual temperature was not listed but the seeds sprout much faster than the comparable one in the small trays beside it.

 

plant stuff and office 028

 

If you live in an older home heated by radiators, covered in a non combustible material, trays could be placed there for warmth but monitor the area regularly so they are not baked instead.

There are several problems that can arise if the temperature needs of the sprouting seedlings are not met. The first problem with lower temperatures is the metabolism of the seed/seedling is slower. In addition, the cooler temperatures combined with generally high moisture levels are good breeding grounds for fungus which may result in the disease or condition know horticultural as damping off.

Lighting

Seeds generally require a good source of light and in fact, some require so much to germinate that the packages suggest little to no coverage of the seeds. In addition, some plants do not grow well if planted early indoors and transplanted. I have had little success transplanting sunflowers and in fact, the package instructions say just to plant in the garden after danger of frost is past. While the root systems may not support the transfer, more often than not the plant’s metabolism requires a high level of natural sunlight, hence straggly plants even when under grow lights.

If you do not have a sunny, no draft location for your seed trays, pots, pellets or whatever you planted in to, perhaps grow lights are for you.  There are many locations from larger big box stores and most most large garden centres  that sell tiered, fluorescent lit plant stands. Another good source to check out are garage sales, or on line used items sites as new tiered light stands are generally quite costly.

 

plant stuff and office 022

 

With the availability of new natural daylight frequency bulbs, often even a desk lamp or shop lighting arrangement can be used for seed planting in spring and  to give seedlings the light boost they need until they can be transitioned to outside areas. Of course there are many home made lighting set ups people have come up with, including adding foil around a light source to keep stray light at a minimum. In addition the increased warmth from the lights also helps with maintaining a good even temperature in the growing area.

To ensure good even lighting, start off with the grow lights approximately 6 inches or 15 cm from the seedlings and raise them as the sprouts grow. If the lights are too high above the greenery, the plants will grow taller and spindly as they try for more lights. In addition the lights should be on 16-18 hours a day to ensure the growth of sturdy  not tall thin plants.  Good, adequate lighting  promotes good leaf formation and strong stems,  and helps prevent  damping off.

Moisture levels

Water levels as any gardener know as crucial to plants, but with seedlings it is a bit tricky. Certainly the peat pellets, coir pots, mini greenhouse, coffee cups and pots that have been carefully planted are being watered regularly, but with the extra light and greenhouse like conditions watering may be a challenge. Of course it is highly recommended to either water via mat watering system or use a spray bottle to keep them seeds moist without disturbing them.

 

Mini Greenhouses on self-wicking water mat

Mini Greenhouses on self-wicking water mat

 

If corms or tuberous plants such as begonias or dahlias are started now to get a jump on the outside growing season, watering with a small container, gently on to the media is best to ensure thorough watering.

Begonia corms    sprouting

Begonia corms
sprouting

 

Possibly the easiest thing for garden novices especially is not drowning the seeds they plant in the spring. While the soil are growing media needs to be moist, try to ensure a consistent source of water by thinking of the seedlings as larger more mature plants. Most plant lovers know they do not need to water a plant every day, but when the soil surface is generally dry. Of course while there are always plants with more exacting water and lighting requirements, this is generally a good run of thumb that should be applied to the younger plant as well.

If there are tray covers on holding in the moisture, check the surface of the media used for possible mould formation. This is also possible when contaminated medium or dirty pots have been re-used. Provided the sprouts are up and growing fine, consider opening any vent on the lid or shifting it to allow more ventilation while maintaining a moist atmosphere over all. If you have rigged up plastic to create a greenhouse effect or are indeed using a greenhouse, remember circulation is vital, so create an opening and consider the use of a fan for good air movement.

Remember not all seeds even of the same plant will sprout at the same time so do not leave the lid on waiting for them all to catch up, so take the lid or dome off when a good percentage have sprouted and mist the rest. While moisture is required, at this point especially, good circulation is a must.

 

striving for better air flow

striving for better air flow

 

Fertilizing

One element often overlooked with seedlings is when and if they need fertilizer. Remember nutrients are important but the seed embryo itself contains all the food the new sprouts will need until they have developed true leaves, not the first ones formed. In fact, according to several expert sources, even mild fertilizer can kill the seedlings by over accelerating their metabolism and burning them.

If the growing medium you used contains no fertilizer, begin weekly feedings with a ¼ strength dilution of fertilizer, whether synthetic or organic. Keep in mind for most plants higher amounts of Phosphorus for good root and plant formation. In addition, if Coir pots or media are used, that coconut fibre product can compete with the new plants of Nitrogen so a more balanced N-P-K (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium) ratio is best. After a week or two ½ strength can be used.

Full recommended dosing is not advisable until the plant is larger and ready to be acclimatized in to a cold frame, or shady area on the way to its permanent home. Another option at that point is mixing a granular organic or synthetic slow release fertilizer in to the soil when the seedlings are moved.

Additional Suggestions

There are countless sites, books, garden experts and even gardening forums that offer a variety of information and support and a few are listed below:

www.GardenWeb.com

www.Helpfulgardener.com

 

Final notes:

While to some, planting seeds in the spring is not something they are interested in, others find it very rewarding. To those of you who cannot spare the time but love to garden, remember most garden centres carry basic perennials, annuals, vegetables etc. at a reasonable cost so you too can have a garden of your own without breaking the bank… so whether it be seeds, sprouts, veggies, ferns, flora or fauna…let your garden inspire you…and happy Spring wherever you are!

lily Logo

 

 

 

Gardening in Winter

Gardening in Winter

While to many, thinking of gardening in  winter may seem to be a foreign concept, really the “thinking” is no different than ever, just the practicalities and chores are different. Now while we merely remember the plants we once had or perhaps look at photos, our outside gardening is limited to trimming and protecting the grounds we love

In fact as we dream of the upcoming spring, our thinking caps need to be on and our imaginations too get to run wild, while our gardens are fast asleep in the frozen ground(except for a weed or two!) . In many countries that experience winter in Dec-March, the temperatures do not take on the -20 C we here in Ontario have been experiencing this past week, but still experience the dormant periods most plants experience in the cooler weather.

 

weed Geranium

weed Geranium

While the gardens may be dormant, January and February are the few months where gardeners are not, but certainly do less physically demanding chores and store up their energy for the upcoming spring. Personally after the Holiday season ends, I turn my focus to my poor neglected house plants before the seed catalogs come pouring in.

Indoor Gardening Chores

While house plants are in a slow growth period as well, due to lower UV light levels even in a sunny window as well as generally cooler temperatures and humidity inside tend to slow down their metabolism, transplanting is not recommended. After having said that, I must confess I occasionally do that if the plant/pot ratio has gotten out of hand for a few sad struggling plants, knowing full well they will probably not get a new lease on life come spring and the busy outside garden season.

Here is my rough list of chores to accomplish in February and March. While this list is not as extensive as it could be, it serves as a starting point for you to jot down your own and keep you in the gardening in winter mode… knowing soon the first buds will form, plants will come to life and spring fragrances will fill the air!

cottage planter in January

cottage planter in January

 

 

Inside plants

-water sparingly and put humidity sensitive plants on gravel to provide extra humidity

-cut off dead/dying leaves and top up soil

-re pot leggy plants in to larger pots or cut plant back and put in original pot

-check for gnat flies/ treat with yellow sticky pads

 

Relocated garden tubers/plants

-check any plants brought in from outside to ensure no bugs are present and treat if necessary

-trim dead/dying leaves and top up soil

-check Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, begonia tubers for rot or dampness

-cut out any spots and ensure shavings/newspaper wrappings are dry and plentiful

Seed supply and propagation equipment

-check seeds harvested from last summers plants

-ensure they are still dry with no mold or mildew formation

-collect propagation trays, labels, soil less mix, seed dispensers etc.

Gardening tool tune up

Brave the cold if need be and gather all spades, trimmers, trowels etc from the garden shed and clean, sharpening and repair them.

 

Pruning

Gardening in winter also includes getting shrubs ready for spring. Despite the cold, February is a good month to prune deciduous trees and shrubs. Even shade, flowering and fruit trees can all be pruned  now, but spring flowering plants such as Forsythia or Spirea as what you will actually be pruning   flower buds  along with the new leaf growth.

Any pruning of these plants should not be done until after spring flowering is complete .Of course pruning a branch of spring flowering shrub from the back will do  little to ruin the overall look in spring  but allow you to force the blooms on it and give your winter gardening a preview of things to come.

 Odd and Ends

There are many odds and ends that still require our focus as the uneven temperature fluctuations of winter create hardships for plants and birds. Remember to keep your birdfeeder (s) full of yummy seeds.

Then of course, you can enjoy a lovely cup of tea or coffee while you daydream and plan with your gardening catalogues.

 

 

Fall Garden Plans

Fall Garden plans

Sitting on my back patio with the sun shining on my face is certainly a lovely way to enjoy a warm September afternoon. Not to be outdone are the flower blooms that wave in my general direction. With each view, I try to hold the moment, all too aware of how fast life moves and how much our need to take charge pushes things forward, often too fast to treasure.

Yes, soon enough the cooler weather will be here, accompanied by a long list of gardening chores to be done. Of course there always seems to be the need to do everything in the correct timeframe add so much pressure that I usually get stressed out and forget something that really needs to be done, like digging up my Dahlias before  the arrival of hard frost.

 

White Dahlia

 

Red Dahlia

 

 

 

 

 

 

As a result I have decided to do first is to list items I should do or need to do. Then from this list, I think I will number the chores with numbers perhaps from 1 to 4 in order of importance. Of course, as with most things in life, what is important to each individual person may vary.

In fact, as I valiantly dig up my Dahlia tubers and begonia corms each fall, I know of at least two fellow gardeners who let them rot and replant them each spring. Their explanation to me was they had little time and could afford the replacement costs. With time often being a precious commodity, I certainly understand this point of view but for myself, a thrifty person, I prefer to save money and enjoy the blooms I have grown to love from year to year.

Sedum Autumn Joy growing in sidewalk crack

Preparing Fall to do list

If you have a fall routine or set pattern that works for you year to year, then you are ahead of the game. For the novice or over extended gardeners, perhaps  starting a   “ to do list “, and posting it front and centre on your fridge or bulletin board  for further updates would be a good idea. Don’t forget to mark the importance to you. I have marked only a few now but will update that later.

Here, in no particular order, is the start of my list:

Trim shrubs back         *1

Cut seed heads off plants for saving or discard

Weed

Fix garden edging

Mark site and colours of Begonias, Gladiolas and Dahlias      *1

Bag up yard waste

Clear away base of trees and mulch them

Mulch gardens

Consider fall lawn treatments

Add compost/organic matter to gardens

Planning and planting new spring flowering bulbs

Fall planting  of garlic?

Garlic Clove

 

Review

While your list of fall garden tasks may look different, I hope this one helped get you started. Certainly there are many more suggested things that I have left off my list that will be added as I go and the weather gets colder. Below are several good resources to check out. With their suggestions in mind I will add to my fridge.

www.lanscapontario.com

 

www.canadiangardening.com

 

In fact I forgot to put down clean garage and garden shed where empty pots, planters and window boxes can be over wintered…not to mention storing the lawnmower. While the list seems endless, we only have so much time, so keep that in mind or if funds permit hire a landscaping company to do some of the heavier work. Another option is getting family help which would be a good way to spend time together and ensure the fall garden list is complete before the colder weather hits.

Maple leaf in Fall Colours

 

No, I will not be discussing winter, when Mother Nature is still blessing us with lovely summer like daytime. Of course as the annuals are still blooming, and the perennials to, something I read that could extend the growing season is fall vegetable planting.

Fall vegetable planting

A recent article I read suggested planting veggies such as cabbage which has a 30-60 day maturity and is hearty until frost. In fact cabbage outer leaves can wither in a light frost and the main head would still be fine. Further research has also suggested   other vegetables such as kale, Swiss chard, beets and even radishes could be planted early in September, of course, depending on our climate zone. One site also suggested herb seeds can also be fall sown as well and of course in locations such as B.C that has a more moderate climate, even some varieties of lettuce can be grown outside.

 

seeds

Fall Seeding References

www.your-vegetable-gardening-helper.com

 

www.canadiangardening.com

Check out; What to plant in the Fall and 16 essential Fall garden tasks

 

There are so many suggestions, books and sites to read that I find it overwhelming. As you read any and all information, again you need to prioritize for your time and what  applies to your garden space. Of course after reading about essential falls chores I have found more to do, but in keeping with the seed planting, I think I will look through my seed collection or go to a local nursery and look for seeds of hardy annuals I can put in the garden to over winter before spring weather releases them.

 

Suggested seeds of annuals that benefit from fall sowing are such as sweet peas, mallow, pansies, larkspur, ornamental cabbage and snapdragons as well as any plant that is listed as hardy annual on seed packs or in catalogues. In addition, pansies and ice pansies can be planted now and in addition to braving the cold later falls temperatures, they arrive in the coolness of spring often before the bulbs bloom.

Pansy

Sod it now

Lawns do much better started in fall. The cool air temperatures reduce evaporation and slow foliage growth, giving the roots time to dig in. Typically, lawns sown or sodded in fall grow just enough to look good, but really show their strength the following summer when, thanks to a deep, well-established root system, they breeze through summer droughts. Sod or sow lawns at least eight weeks before the first killing frost.

 

Plant a tree

 

Many trees and shrubs do well when planted or transplanted at this time of year. Both deciduous trees and evergreens can be planted until quite late in the fall. However, according to www.treecanada.ca   poplars, willows, ash, elms, and birches tend to overwinter better if planted in the spring. Further information can also be found on the sites previously mentioned, and at local nurseries. While you are there, check out tree, shrubs, perennials, bulbs and even seed stock.

Remember, anything planted now still needs to be watered well so they can adjust at first and the ground around needs to have a good moisture content to ensure a good start when spring comes. Wait, watering is not on my list but a dry fall can certainly make new growth difficult for all gardens and lawns trying for a new start after winter.

 

Summary

With fall approaching it may seem like the end of gardening season, as I have shown, there is still a good deal of life and planting that can be done. In addition, while the list of fall chores may seem daunting, try to allocate a chore with the time you have at that moment. If you have an hour on a sunny warm autumn day, use it to plant or trim a small plant rather than take on a large job such as mulching which takes much more time and can add frustration to an otherwise lovely day.

Remember Fall or Autumn is merely another season to be enjoyed…plant an ice pansy, plan a bulb garden, or just enjoy a Mum or two…and be inspired!

 

 


Potted Mums

 

 

Fall Seed Sowing

Fall Seed Sowing

Sitting on my deck recently enjoying a warm, sunny September afternoon, I started to take inventory of my gardens. While the summer flowering annuals and perennials are still growing, the signs of cooling weather are showing up as more tree and shrub leaves begin to discolour, as buds and blooms begin to diminish.

Of course with fall becoming apparent here and with the shopping world promoting warmer clothes and back to school supplies, I too began to think of what I would need to do as the garden to get it in shape for its long winters rest. However, when I began to compose a list of garden chores, so none I deemed important would be forgotten, the seeds of a new type of garden growing came to light…. Fall sowing.

 

Sedum Autumn Joy

 

 Fall Sowing

As many gardeners know, fall is a good time to plant new, or split perennials, plant garlic cloves and small shrubs. Even many types of trees can be planted in September and possibly in to early October if the night time temperatures are not too cold. Most know that spring flowering bulbs can be planted even in to November provided the ground has not frozen. None of these gardening tips were new to me, but fall sowing was something I had never considered.

 

Garlic Clove

 

A recent article I read suggested planting veggies such as cabbage which has a 30-60 day maturity and is hearty until frost. In fact cabbage outer leaves can wither in a light frost and the main head would still be fine.  Further research has also suggested   other vegetables such as kale, Swiss card, beets and even radishes and carrots could be planted early in September of course depending on our climate zone. One site also suggested herb seeds can also be fall sown as well and of course in locations such as B.C which has a more moderate climate, even some varieties of lettuce can be grown outside.

 

Resources

www.your-vegetable-gardening-helper.com

www.canadiangardening.com

article :  What to plant in the Fall

 

There are so many suggestions, books and sites to read that I find it overwhelming. As you read any and all information, try to take what you think is essential that applies to your garden space and the time you have to spend on it. Of course at this late time of year, after checking out my seed collection, I will visit a local nursery to see what if any seeds they have for sale.

 

Seed Suggestions

Suggested seeds of annuals that benefit from fall sowing are such as sweet peas, mallow, pansies, larkspur, ornamental cabbage and snapdragons as well as any plant that is listed as hardy annual on seed packs or in catalogues. In addition, pansies and ice pansies can be planted now and in addition to braving the cold later falls temperatures, they arrive in the coolness of spring often before the bulbs bloom.

 

seeds

 

Planting location suggestions

Fall harvests

I have never planted at this time of the year and I confess as there are no veggies in my garden at all this year, maybe I should try planting some. In the garden or even a large pot if you are hoping for the seeds to germinate as soon as possible, for one last harvest of veggies or herbs, plant the seeds at the germination depth suggested on the package.

Spring germination

For spring germination of hard annuals, planting at that depth would not be suggested as the winter weather and early spring frosts would probably throw the seeds out of the soil. They are also then at risk of being eaten by birds or mice or drying out in the spring before germination begins.

One suggestion to deal with this is to mark the rows, plant at the usual depth and then mounding a ridge of earth or mulch two or three inches deep over the line of each row. Then in the spring the excess can be removed carefully allowing better temperature and moisture access for good germination.

Container planting

 In addition to planting right in the garden beds, pots and containers can be used. In this case plant the seeds as suggested on the package for good germination as the plants will not be outside during the winter. Once the colder weather arrives, the plants can then be moved inside or to a cold frame at night or permanently when the colder weather hits. Cold frames in my mind where something I wold build out of wood and heavy plastic that would house newer plants in the cooler spring weather. I had never considered using them to start or encourage the growth of plants in September.

 

The many pots of rich composted soil on my porch and back steps that were ready for the blooming annuals that I never bought, would be the perfect place to start my fall sowing.  Of course I must be mindful of the pot size and the interior location I hope to place them in.

 

Planting Equipment

Further information

Remember to determine the interior site first, checking not only for the diameter of pot that can be placed there, but most importantly for the amount of light that spot gets. There are many good sites to check for information on fertilization etc. and I have listed several good ones below. Good luck and happy fall planting!

 

www.vegetable-gardening-online.com

   growing-vegetables-in-containers

 

www.canadiangardening.com

 

/gardens/fruit-and-vegetable-gardening/no-garden-no-problem-grow-veggies-in-containers

 

 

 

Pansy

 

 

Anatomy of a Flower

Recently after writing numerous articles on flowers, I came to realize how little I remembered of their anatomy. While the words stamen and anther floated off in the foggy parts of my brain, none of the public school science class came along for the ride, so as usual I decided it was research time again, knowing, there would be so much data my brain would swell!

Certainly I was not disappointed at what I found out, but never in my wildest dream did the anatomy of a plant, or pollination seem so exciting. Or perhaps I should call the article, the sex life of a single plant! Okay, laugh all you like, but I did come to learn about the male and female parts, the sperm cells and the ovule.

Unlike in humans, most of the time these parts are in the same plant, but occasionally there are plants that hold one sexual part, waiting for the opposite part of the same species. In neither case does conversation or interest play a role. Appearance on the other hand is almost everything, as the attraction of insects to a lovely looking bloom is the first stem in a complex cycle.

 

While each plant has many complex  cycles, such as root, nutrition and cellular growth just to name a few, I am just exploring the role of the flower in  ensuring the plant propagates. Not all plants flower or spread by seed, but those that do are the most common in our garden and are enjoyed by both people and insect populations. Surely the terminology of the anatomy of a flower and steps of plant sex are complicated, and so several diagrams will follow, as well as some photographs of lovely blooms.

 

Anatomy of a flower

 

Anatomy of a flower

                     A.  Peduncle                         E. Petals                  

                                         B.   Ovary                               F. Anther

                                         C.   Style                                G. Stamens

                                         D.   Stigma                            H. Sepals

Each flower bud is attached and supported by a peduncle or in common terms, a stalk or stem( see A above). The stem gives support to the developing flower from the elements and insects so it is not destroyed before the seeds are formed. From this stem grows the Sepal ( H), which is a leaf like part that protects the maturing bud and supports the base of the flower once it is open.

Each boom is composed of petals which make it visually attractive and often pleasantly scented. While the number in each bloom varies, as do the styles and shapes, their purpose is the same . Despite any physical differences on the outside, their role is to attract insects in to the flower. Once there, the insects collect pollen on a body part, often the legs and transfer it when they go in to the bloom of another plant.

 

Stamen

The Stamen is the male flower part and is composed of two parts:(F)  Anther                   and (G) Filament.

There they go…the little honey bees, looking for nectar and moving pollen by landing on the Anther. Now the Anther, or male pollen producing reproductive organ of the flower, blows in the breeze high atop the Filament.

The Filament is a thin stem that provides support for the Anther making it easier to be seen and for visits by local insects. The Anther has two lobes, both of which have spore making sacks called Microsporangia. The micro spores inside split by mitosis, so both the nucleus and cytoplasm are identical …an exact duplicate of the parent plant in each grain of pollen. Once the pollen is mature the Anther then opens for transfer by wind, water or the general bug population.

 

Anther, Filament and Stigma of a Hosta

 

Technically the male part of the reproduction equation here, in brief comes down to the Stamen is a tiny Filament with a bumpy two segmented Anther on top. The usually pale yellow pollen maturing there is then released to carry the plants genetic material, with each grain of pollen containing cells that eventually for sperm cells. Yes, that is what they are called and they do travel in search of the Ovary.

Pistil

The Pistil is composed of single or multiple units that are separate or fused. Each unit is called a Carpel.

Each Carpel has four parts:    the Stigma ( D)

    Style    (C)

   Ovary  (B)

                 Ovule (inside B)

 

Stigma

The top of this section or the Stigma can be long and slender to feathery in appearance. In addition to receiving the pollen transferred by insects, the Stigma also rejects the pollen of other species preventing mutation. Once on a compatible Stigma, the sugary fluid formed there causes the pollen to germinate.

 

Style

The Style is a tube-like portion between the Stigma and the Ovary that can be short or lengthy. Germinated pollen on the Stigma grows a pollen tube that carries the sperm cells by drilling its way through the nutrient rich Style carrying the sperm cells towards the Ovary. . In some cases the style is responsible for self-incompatibility, causing pollen tubes to fail.

Ovary

The Ovary is the female reproductive organ of the flower and the part of the Pistil that hold s the Ovules. Once the pollen tube reaches here, the now grown sperm cells are delivered to the ovule.

 

Stigma, Style and Ovary

 

Ovule

In seed propagating plants, the ovule contains the female reproductive parts and consists for three parts. There is an outer layer, a nucleus and inside the nucleus is the actual egg cell which is the site of the fertilization. After one sperm achieves this, the ovule becomes a seed cell that forms other seed. The second sperm cell changes and grows to become the food supply for the embryo.

 

In addition, the plants have stores of starch, protein and oils as food for the developing embryo and developing seedling, similar to the yolk of animal eggs.  There are also other terms and complex steps that are referred to in the same terms at human sexual reproduction, such a placenta, and umbilical cord.

 

 

Life Cycle of a Floral plant

 

 Conclusion

I have spent quite some time sorting through the facts before writing this article and the only real conclusion I have is that describing the parts of a flower that are involved in its sexual reproduction, as complicated as trying to explain the development of a human baby.

Of course the other obvious part of this conclusion is that life is a miracle , no matter how many terms and books describe the science behind it.

Now I admire the lovely blooms of my garden and feel even more connected and inspired to share their enthusiasm…time to smell the roses!

 

Nice Anthers!

 

 

Water Flora

Water flora was not a subject I had considered until recently. After writing the article about vertical planting, I felt motivated to explore more aspects of the world than my everyday locations. From our regular routes along streets whether on foot, by bike or car, we see the commercial and official faces of business and homes, so my goal was to find something unique like water flora.

Part of the unique or unusual is just finding what makes me feel good, even though it might hold no interest for anyone else. To capture this feeling, I took a lovely floating trip on a local river. Besides enjoying the shallow but cooling water I got to see so much life. In the kayak, not only do I get to see water flora and nature relatively undisturbed, but I get to peek into people’s backyards. I will admit, that my undercover stealth work started years ago and I still love it!

 

When my mother, sister and I went to the East coast every summer, we took many trains that wound their way through secret spots behind houses. Being an avid gardener even by age 11, I appreciated looking at gardens normally never seen. There were mounds of rusting old cars and boats, with an occasional pond or fountain that would fascinate me! 

As a teenager, I began to notice green house, scarecrows, sunflowers, veggies and all sorts of growing things. Now, years later, my snooping involves GO trains and floating by in my kayak admiring the  back yard gardens of huge homes. 

Such riverfront backyards show a personal side of the families that live here, as children’s playhouses, lawn chairs, old docks and boats of all shapes and sizes come and go.  There are also lovely, tiered gardens, tennis courts and broad expanses of beautiful green lawns.

 

Certainly as I drift by in my kayak, these lovely landscaped yards filled with blooming annuals and perennials are a lovely treat. Combined with the splendour of tall flowing willow trees, bobbing wildflowers and, interesting wildlife, my voyages are always memorable. Of course, Mother Nature providing the best water flora of all!

wild Forget-me-nots

 

lovely water flora

lovely water flora

 

 

 

 

 

For me, not many things are cooler than paddling around a bend, listening only to the wind, and discovering new blooms and birds. Certainly some of the wildflowers are not new to me and some normal garden perennials are even in the tall blowing grass of abandoned spaces all along the river.

Not to be outdone are the occasional wild iris and other aquatic plants found peaking their blooms up from the water’s edge. Once I even saw a raccoon washing his lunch. Everywhere I look there are swooping birds looking for a fish snack and big birds that just stand and scoop, like the White Egret and the Blue Heron. There are also Canadian geese, ducks galore and swans bobbing up and down the river and even out in to Lake Ontario.

White Egret and Blue Heron

 

Not to be outdone by a bird, I decided to add a new page to my memories and brave the waters of Lake Ontario. After braving waves galore on my way out of the harbour, my arms seemed to find the pace needed to glide the kayak out past the freighter break wall to wide open water. Wow, what a view…all around and even below!

 

Kayak voyage

 

 

Yes, below when the sun shone, was an underwater garden or amazing water flora. The clear water below was home to lovely greenery growing on the rocks, tall plants beyond that and fish smoothly swishing between them. From my viewpoint both the fish and the lovely green vegetation were magnified by the water to look larger than life.

 Water Flora in Port Credit Harbour

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Regardless of their size and whether I have any idea of the species of life in the aquatic garden, as the picture shows, they are amazing! In fact I was so enthralled at aquatic landscaping that I checked the net for further information, and to my amazement, the term I thought was my idea, is in fact a real subject with countless websites.

Below is one listing that has a great deal of information and many photos that shows the setting up and progress of underwater or aquatic gardens’.

www.aquatic-gardeners.org

 

Another interesting site is:www.tfhmagazine.com. On this site, in the search box type aquatic gardening and the first result found, aquatic gardening nano bears further reading. Here you can learn about plants and whether the tank should be left only for the plants or include fish.

At the moment, I am leaving water flora of gardening until I have the time and space. Who knows, what the future brings, as lunar landscaping is certainly out of my range, maybe aquatic gardening with amazing water flora would be a whole new world…do plants live longer when they don’t need a garden hose to water them?