All along my street  this fall I notice gardens  blooming with sedum, tall grasses, Zinnias, roses and then of course there are the hardy Chrysanthemums. Now that the extreme heat and humidity of summer has passed, leaving much more pleasant weather for us to enjoy, it is as if the plants recognize it as well. Fall flower gardens are amazing!



Chrysanthemums, or mums to most gardeners, have been on my mind lately as pots of them are everywhere you look. Whether it is a local mall garden centre, a nursery, hardware mega store or even a small local department store, there are racks of their brightly coloured blooms.

Recently I rode my bicycle past yet another garden where they were bursting in to bloom, and realized how little I know  about this well know and lovely fall plant? Just where did these mums come from originally and how did they end up on in our gardens?


Potted Mums

Years ago I regularly watched a show on HGTV called Flower Power that explored these and many more questions. In each episode the host, who was and still is a well known garden expert, would present a synopsis on a different flower. I also enjoyed the photography of the plant’s country of origin as well as its many varieties.

While I am not an expert, with many gardening resource books and the internet at my finger tips investigation should be a breeze. Perhaps now is the time for another plant   adventure, inspired by many gardens this time, not just my own.




Chrysanthemums or mums are herbaceous perennial flowering plants that are native to Asia and northeastern Europe. They are related to marigolds, zinnias, dahlias and sunflowers, by being from the same family Asteracea. Originally cultivated in China as a flowering herb, as early as the 15th century B.C, it is believed the early forms were Chrysanthemum Sinese and Chrysanthemum Indictum. In addition to a wide variety of uses the blooms were incorporated in to their artwork and are still to this day.


Chrysanthemum indicum

Chrysanthemum Sinese







While I was unable to determine the range of this flower and its spread, records say the flower was brought to Japan sometime in the 8th century. There it took on as equally prestigious status as in China, by becoming an important symbols used widely in festivals, and artwork. In fact, they were embraced by the Emperor as his official seal in the 12th century and it remains even now a symbol of the Japanese Imperial Family. In addition, during the 18th century Japan created the Grand Order of the Badge of the Chrysanthemums.


Imperial Seal of Japan


The name Chrysanthemum was given to this plant genus in the 17th Century with its spread throughout Europe, by the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus. Linneaus is considered to be the father of modern plant classification. The name Chrysanthemum is derived from the Greek word Chrynos which means “gold” and the word Anthemon which means” flower”. The original flowers were small, yellow blooms,as shown above but exploration eventually revealed about thirty species that were documented.

Chrysanthemums extended through Europe and to North America. In 1846 the Stoke Newington Chrysanthemum Society was formed, becoming the National Chrysanthemum Society in 1884. In addition to meetings etc, they held three shows yearly at the Royal Aquarium in London until 1902 and then at the Crystal Palace. Despite interest in the Chrysanthemum in North America, I found no information on society’s formation until the 1940’s

Read more:


1902 Garden Show Poster

Plant Description


The many varieties, colours etc. are vast, to an ordinary gardener these plants are separated in to two groups, the exhibition plants grown primarily for floral arrangements and the hardy plants grown by gardeners across Canada. The plants range in height from about 15 cm to 150 cm with deeply lobed leaves.


The flowers have been classified internationally in to 13 different bloom forms including daisy-like, pom-pom, spiders and the more traditional garden variety of single and double blossoms. The more exotic and taller varieties require more stringent conditions of temperature and care, including staking due to their height. Generally these are commercially raised to show off in florist bouquets and for Chrysanthemum enthusiasts up to the challenge.

Mums primarily bloom in lovely shades of bronze, lavender, white, pink, purple red and yellow. Of course, as new hybrids are developed, the variety of sizes, blooms, shapes and colours grow.


Plant Usage


The chrysanthemums are the second most popular flower sold after the Rose. With thousands of cultivars in different colours, heights petal size and formation there is something for everyone. The garden hardy mums survive in zones 3-9, produce lots of small blooms and require no staking. The exhibition varieties are grown primarily by collectors and for the Florist industry, requiring much more detailed care.

The variety of colours, hardiness even of individual flowers from the small pom-pom to the larger exotics is one of the reasons this flowering plant is so popular. Once cut, the chrysanthemum flowers have an excellent survival time which makes them an excellent choice for all types of flower arrangement. In fact mums are often the flower of choice for sculptural elements in flower shows for example.







Both the leaves and flowers are used for seasoning in several ways throughout the world. Flowers are used in many Asian countries to make tea, flavour rice wine and to add aroma to soup. Tiny flowers are also used as a garnish and the leaves are boiled and eaten as greens.


If you use environmentally safe insecticides, you may have seen the word Pyrethrin on the label. Pyrethrin, from crushed Chrysanthemum seed, is an organic compound used in a liquid, oil or powder form, as an insecticide. Specific to the nervous system of insects, this compound kills or repels most plant insects, while being far less toxic to birds and mammals than many synthetic insecticides.


While we all know mums as well as all flowering plants brighten up both gardens and any room they are placed in, NASA took things one step further. They included this plant in their Clean Air Study and determined Chrysanthemums were one of the top 10 plants most effective in removing Formaldehyde, Benzene, and Carbon Monoxide from the air inside a building.



Alternative medicine maintains there are many medicinal health benefits from the Chrysanthemum, especially when steeped in to a tea. Traditional Chinese medicine promotes the tea as a great way to prevent sore throats and fevers of a cold and to lessen the symptoms when you have a cold. In Korea they use it as a stimulant to keep you awake, while Western holistic and herbal medicine touts the tea as a treatment for atherosclerosis and varicose veins.

Externally the steeped flowers are squeezed to remove excess water and then used as a compress to treat a variety of eye ailments such as dry or itchy eyes, blurry or diminished vision as well as the reducing the inflammation of acne.

While studies have shown some effectiveness to these treatments, more data is needed for most traditional medicine doctors. In addition, adverse reactions to consuming and even handling chrysanthemums have been recorded. Symptoms range from upset stomachs to skin rashes, while the vast majority of people have no reaction what so ever.

Read more: Health Benefits of Chrysanthemum Tea |



Summing up the centuries of history, lineage, usage and beauty of Chrysanthemums really is impossible, therefore I won’t attempt to. Instead I’m going to fill my car up with beautiful mums and take them home. Then no matter where I sit in my garden their lovely blooms will brighten my day…and I can imagine a Buddhist monk watering his plants generations ago, on a sunny porch in Tibet!



Fall Garden Plans

Fall Garden plans

Sitting on my back patio with the sun shining on my face is certainly a lovely way to enjoy a warm September afternoon. Not to be outdone are the flower blooms that wave in my general direction. With each view, I try to hold the moment, all too aware of how fast life moves and how much our need to take charge pushes things forward, often too fast to treasure.

Yes, soon enough the cooler weather will be here, accompanied by a long list of gardening chores to be done. Of course there always seems to be the need to do everything in the correct timeframe add so much pressure that I usually get stressed out and forget something that really needs to be done, like digging up my Dahlias before  the arrival of hard frost.


White Dahlia


Red Dahlia







As a result I have decided to do first is to list items I should do or need to do. Then from this list, I think I will number the chores with numbers perhaps from 1 to 4 in order of importance. Of course, as with most things in life, what is important to each individual person may vary.

In fact, as I valiantly dig up my Dahlia tubers and begonia corms each fall, I know of at least two fellow gardeners who let them rot and replant them each spring. Their explanation to me was they had little time and could afford the replacement costs. With time often being a precious commodity, I certainly understand this point of view but for myself, a thrifty person, I prefer to save money and enjoy the blooms I have grown to love from year to year.

Sedum Autumn Joy growing in sidewalk crack

Preparing Fall to do list

If you have a fall routine or set pattern that works for you year to year, then you are ahead of the game. For the novice or over extended gardeners, perhaps  starting a   “ to do list “, and posting it front and centre on your fridge or bulletin board  for further updates would be a good idea. Don’t forget to mark the importance to you. I have marked only a few now but will update that later.

Here, in no particular order, is the start of my list:

Trim shrubs back         *1

Cut seed heads off plants for saving or discard


Fix garden edging

Mark site and colours of Begonias, Gladiolas and Dahlias      *1

Bag up yard waste

Clear away base of trees and mulch them

Mulch gardens

Consider fall lawn treatments

Add compost/organic matter to gardens

Planning and planting new spring flowering bulbs

Fall planting  of garlic?

Garlic Clove



While your list of fall garden tasks may look different, I hope this one helped get you started. Certainly there are many more suggested things that I have left off my list that will be added as I go and the weather gets colder. Below are several good resources to check out. With their suggestions in mind I will add to my fridge.


In fact I forgot to put down clean garage and garden shed where empty pots, planters and window boxes can be over wintered…not to mention storing the lawnmower. While the list seems endless, we only have so much time, so keep that in mind or if funds permit hire a landscaping company to do some of the heavier work. Another option is getting family help which would be a good way to spend time together and ensure the fall garden list is complete before the colder weather hits.

Maple leaf in Fall Colours


No, I will not be discussing winter, when Mother Nature is still blessing us with lovely summer like daytime. Of course as the annuals are still blooming, and the perennials to, something I read that could extend the growing season is fall vegetable planting.

Fall vegetable planting

A recent article I read suggested planting veggies such as cabbage which has a 30-60 day maturity and is hearty until frost. In fact cabbage outer leaves can wither in a light frost and the main head would still be fine. Further research has also suggested   other vegetables such as kale, Swiss chard, beets and even radishes could be planted early in September, of course, depending on our climate zone. One site also suggested herb seeds can also be fall sown as well and of course in locations such as B.C that has a more moderate climate, even some varieties of lettuce can be grown outside.



Fall Seeding References

Check out; What to plant in the Fall and 16 essential Fall garden tasks


There are so many suggestions, books and sites to read that I find it overwhelming. As you read any and all information, again you need to prioritize for your time and what  applies to your garden space. Of course after reading about essential falls chores I have found more to do, but in keeping with the seed planting, I think I will look through my seed collection or go to a local nursery and look for seeds of hardy annuals I can put in the garden to over winter before spring weather releases them.


Suggested seeds of annuals that benefit from fall sowing are such as sweet peas, mallow, pansies, larkspur, ornamental cabbage and snapdragons as well as any plant that is listed as hardy annual on seed packs or in catalogues. In addition, pansies and ice pansies can be planted now and in addition to braving the cold later falls temperatures, they arrive in the coolness of spring often before the bulbs bloom.


Sod it now

Lawns do much better started in fall. The cool air temperatures reduce evaporation and slow foliage growth, giving the roots time to dig in. Typically, lawns sown or sodded in fall grow just enough to look good, but really show their strength the following summer when, thanks to a deep, well-established root system, they breeze through summer droughts. Sod or sow lawns at least eight weeks before the first killing frost.


Plant a tree


Many trees and shrubs do well when planted or transplanted at this time of year. Both deciduous trees and evergreens can be planted until quite late in the fall. However, according to   poplars, willows, ash, elms, and birches tend to overwinter better if planted in the spring. Further information can also be found on the sites previously mentioned, and at local nurseries. While you are there, check out tree, shrubs, perennials, bulbs and even seed stock.

Remember, anything planted now still needs to be watered well so they can adjust at first and the ground around needs to have a good moisture content to ensure a good start when spring comes. Wait, watering is not on my list but a dry fall can certainly make new growth difficult for all gardens and lawns trying for a new start after winter.



With fall approaching it may seem like the end of gardening season, as I have shown, there is still a good deal of life and planting that can be done. In addition, while the list of fall chores may seem daunting, try to allocate a chore with the time you have at that moment. If you have an hour on a sunny warm autumn day, use it to plant or trim a small plant rather than take on a large job such as mulching which takes much more time and can add frustration to an otherwise lovely day.

Remember Fall or Autumn is merely another season to be enjoyed…plant an ice pansy, plan a bulb garden, or just enjoy a Mum or two…and be inspired!



Potted Mums



Fall Seed Sowing

Fall Seed Sowing

Sitting on my deck recently enjoying a warm, sunny September afternoon, I started to take inventory of my gardens. While the summer flowering annuals and perennials are still growing, the signs of cooling weather are showing up as more tree and shrub leaves begin to discolour, as buds and blooms begin to diminish.

Of course with fall becoming apparent here and with the shopping world promoting warmer clothes and back to school supplies, I too began to think of what I would need to do as the garden to get it in shape for its long winters rest. However, when I began to compose a list of garden chores, so none I deemed important would be forgotten, the seeds of a new type of garden growing came to light…. Fall sowing.


Sedum Autumn Joy


 Fall Sowing

As many gardeners know, fall is a good time to plant new, or split perennials, plant garlic cloves and small shrubs. Even many types of trees can be planted in September and possibly in to early October if the night time temperatures are not too cold. Most know that spring flowering bulbs can be planted even in to November provided the ground has not frozen. None of these gardening tips were new to me, but fall sowing was something I had never considered.


Garlic Clove


A recent article I read suggested planting veggies such as cabbage which has a 30-60 day maturity and is hearty until frost. In fact cabbage outer leaves can wither in a light frost and the main head would still be fine.  Further research has also suggested   other vegetables such as kale, Swiss card, beets and even radishes and carrots could be planted early in September of course depending on our climate zone. One site also suggested herb seeds can also be fall sown as well and of course in locations such as B.C which has a more moderate climate, even some varieties of lettuce can be grown outside.



article :  What to plant in the Fall


There are so many suggestions, books and sites to read that I find it overwhelming. As you read any and all information, try to take what you think is essential that applies to your garden space and the time you have to spend on it. Of course at this late time of year, after checking out my seed collection, I will visit a local nursery to see what if any seeds they have for sale.


Seed Suggestions

Suggested seeds of annuals that benefit from fall sowing are such as sweet peas, mallow, pansies, larkspur, ornamental cabbage and snapdragons as well as any plant that is listed as hardy annual on seed packs or in catalogues. In addition, pansies and ice pansies can be planted now and in addition to braving the cold later falls temperatures, they arrive in the coolness of spring often before the bulbs bloom.




Planting location suggestions

Fall harvests

I have never planted at this time of the year and I confess as there are no veggies in my garden at all this year, maybe I should try planting some. In the garden or even a large pot if you are hoping for the seeds to germinate as soon as possible, for one last harvest of veggies or herbs, plant the seeds at the germination depth suggested on the package.

Spring germination

For spring germination of hard annuals, planting at that depth would not be suggested as the winter weather and early spring frosts would probably throw the seeds out of the soil. They are also then at risk of being eaten by birds or mice or drying out in the spring before germination begins.

One suggestion to deal with this is to mark the rows, plant at the usual depth and then mounding a ridge of earth or mulch two or three inches deep over the line of each row. Then in the spring the excess can be removed carefully allowing better temperature and moisture access for good germination.

Container planting

 In addition to planting right in the garden beds, pots and containers can be used. In this case plant the seeds as suggested on the package for good germination as the plants will not be outside during the winter. Once the colder weather arrives, the plants can then be moved inside or to a cold frame at night or permanently when the colder weather hits. Cold frames in my mind where something I wold build out of wood and heavy plastic that would house newer plants in the cooler spring weather. I had never considered using them to start or encourage the growth of plants in September.


The many pots of rich composted soil on my porch and back steps that were ready for the blooming annuals that I never bought, would be the perfect place to start my fall sowing.  Of course I must be mindful of the pot size and the interior location I hope to place them in.


Planting Equipment

Further information

Remember to determine the interior site first, checking not only for the diameter of pot that can be placed there, but most importantly for the amount of light that spot gets. There are many good sites to check for information on fertilization etc. and I have listed several good ones below. Good luck and happy fall planting!